NSURLRequest:如何发布数据并阅读发布的页面?

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在iOS(当前目标5.0,Base SDK 5.1)中,我如何向服务器发送发布请求,然后阅读页面的内容。例如,页面接受用户名和密码,然后回显true或false。这只是为了更好地理解NSURLRequest。

提问于
用户回答回答于

首先有几件事

  • 决定如何编码数据--JSON或URL编码是一个好的开始。
  • 决定返回值 - 它是1,TRUE还是0,FALSE,甚至YES / NO-NIL无/无。
  • 阅读URL加载系统,这是你的朋友。

旨在使所有的网址连接异步,以便用户界面保持响应。你可以用NSURLConnectionDelegate回调来做到这一点。NSURLConnection有一个小缺点:你的代码必须解耦。需要在委托函数中提供的任何变量都需要保存到ivars或请求的userInfo字典中。

或者,可以使用GCD,当它与__block限定符结合使用时,可以在声明它的位置指定错误/返回代码 - 对于一次取出有用。

毫不迟疑,这里有一个快速而肮脏的url编码器:

- (NSData*)encodeDictionary:(NSDictionary*)dictionary {
      NSMutableArray *parts = [[NSMutableArray alloc] init];
      for (NSString *key in dictionary) {
        NSString *encodedValue = [[dictionary objectForKey:key] stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
        NSString *encodedKey = [key stringByAddingPercentEscapesUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding]; 
        NSString *part = [NSString stringWithFormat: @"%@=%@", encodedKey, encodedValue];
        [parts addObject:part];
      }
      NSString *encodedDictionary = [parts componentsJoinedByString:@"&"];
      return [encodedDictionary dataUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
    }

使用像JSONKit这样的JSON库可以使编码更容易。

方法1 - NSURLConnectionDelegate异步回调:

// .h
@interface ViewController : UIViewController<NSURLConnectionDelegate>
@end

// .m
@interface ViewController () {
  NSMutableData *receivedData_;
}
@end

...

- (IBAction)asyncButtonPushed:(id)sender {
  NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"http://localhost/"];
  NSDictionary *postDict = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"user", @"username", 
                            @"password", @"password", nil];
  NSData *postData = [self encodeDictionary:postDict];

  // Create the request
  NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:url];
  [request setHTTPMethod:@"POST"];
  [request setValue:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%d", postData.length] forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Length"];
  [request setValue:@"application/x-www-form-urlencoded charset=utf-8" forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Type"];
  [request setHTTPBody:postData];

  NSURLConnection *connection = [[NSURLConnection alloc] initWithRequest:request 
                                                                delegate:self];

  [connection start];  
}

- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveResponse:(NSURLResponse *)response {
  [receivedData_ setLength:0];
}

- (void)connection:(NSURLConnection *)connection didReceiveData:(NSData *)data { 
  [receivedData_ appendData:data];
}

- (void)connectionDidFinishLoading:(NSURLConnection *)connection {
  NSLog(@"Succeeded! Received %d bytes of data", [receivedData_ length]);
  NSString *responeString = [[NSString alloc] initWithData:receivedData_
                                                  encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
  // Assume lowercase 
  if ([responeString isEqualToString:@"true"]) {
    // Deal with true
    return;
  }    
  // Deal with an error
}

方法2 - Grand Central Dispatch异步功能:

// .m
- (IBAction)dispatchButtonPushed:(id)sender {

  NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:@"http://www.apple.com/"];
  NSDictionary *postDict = [NSDictionary dictionaryWithObjectsAndKeys:@"user", @"username", 
                            @"password", @"password", nil];
  NSData *postData = [self encodeDictionary:postDict];

  // Create the request
  NSMutableURLRequest *request = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:url];
  [request setHTTPMethod:@"POST"];
  [request setValue:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%d", postData.length] forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Length"];
  [request setValue:@"application/x-www-form-urlencoded charset=utf-8" forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Type"];
  [request setHTTPBody:postData];

  dispatch_async(dispatch_get_global_queue(DISPATCH_QUEUE_PRIORITY_DEFAULT, 0), ^{
    // Peform the request
    NSURLResponse *response;
    NSError *error = nil;
    NSData *receivedData = [NSURLConnection sendSynchronousRequest:request  
                                           returningResponse:&response
                                                       error:&error];    
    if (error) {
      // Deal with your error
      if ([response isKindOfClass:[NSHTTPURLResponse class]]) {
        NSHTTPURLResponse *httpResponse = (NSHTTPURLResponse*)response;
        NSLog(@"HTTP Error: %d %@", httpResponse.statusCode, error);
        return;
      }
      NSLog(@"Error %@", error);
      return;
    }

    NSString *responeString = [[NSString alloc] initWithData:receivedData
                                                    encoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];
    // Assume lowercase 
    if ([responeString isEqualToString:@"true"]) {
      // Deal with true
      return;
    }    
    // Deal with an error

    // When dealing with UI updates, they must be run on the main queue, ie:
    //      dispatch_async(dispatch_get_main_queue(), ^(void){
    //      
    //      });
  }); 
}

方法3 - 使用NSURLConnection便利功能

+ (void)sendAsynchronousRequest:(NSURLRequest *)request queue:(NSOperationQueue *)queue completionHandler:(void (^)(NSURLResponse*, NSData*, NSError*))handler
用户回答回答于
  NSData *postData = [someStringToPost dataUsingEncoding:NSUTF8StringEncoding];

  NSURL *url = [NSURL URLWithString:someURLString];
  NSMutableURLRequest *req = [NSMutableURLRequest requestWithURL:url];
  [req setHTTPMethod:@"POST"];
  [req setValue:[NSString stringWithFormat:@"%d", postData.length] forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Length"];
  [req setValue:@"application/x-www-form-urlencoded charset=utf-8" forHTTPHeaderField:@"Content-Type"];
  [req setHTTPBody:postData];

  NSError *err = nil;
  NSHTTPURLResponse *res = nil;
  NSData *retData = [NSURLConnection sendSynchronousRequest:req returningResponse:&res error:&err];
  if (err)
  {
    //handle error
  }
  else
  {
    //handle response and returning data
  }

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