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  • Combine-实践

    Combine 既可以在 SwiftUI 中使用,也可以在 UIKit 中使用。下面分别实践一下。SwiftUI声明式UI + 响应式编程是未来移动开发的趋势,所以 Combine 对于 SwiftUI 来说是不可或缺的一部分,这也是为什么 Combine 会随着 SwiftUI 一起发布。var body: some View { Text(currentValue) .onReceive(Just(SwiftUI + Combine)) { value in self.currentValue= value } }} UIKit虽然 SwiftUI + Combine 是一对黄金搭档,但是在 UIKit 中 Combine 也可以发挥重要作用。实现效果import UIKitimport Combine extension Notification.Name{ static var newMessage = Notification.Name
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  • Combine-Scheduler

    在 Combine 中如果数据流前面的 Publisher 是在后台线程进行操作,那么在订阅时,当状态的变化会更新 UI 时,需要将数据流中接收数据的线程切换到主线程。但是实际情况往往是在整个数据流中需要切换 Scheduler,所以 Combine 提供了两个函数来设置 Scheduler。(在哪里接收数据)import Combine let subscription = Just(1) .map { _ in print(Thread.isMainThread) } .receive((在哪里发布数据)import Combine let subscription = Just(1) .subscribe(on: DispatchQueue.global()) .map { _ inreceive(on: DispatchQueue.main) .sink { print(Thread.isMainThread) } * 输出falsetrue*案例import UIKitimport Combine
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  • Combine-AnyPublisher

    为了对复杂类型的 Publisher 进行类型抹消,Combine 提供了eraseToAnyPublisher()方法将复杂的 Publisher 转化为对应的通用类型AnyPublisher。案例import Combine p1类型: Publishers.FlatMaplet p1 = , ] .publisher .flatMap { $0.publisher } p2类型: Publishers.Mapletimport UIKitimport Combine class DataPublisher { private var dataPublisher: AnyPublisher var cancellable: DispatchQueue.main).sink(receiveCompletion: {_ in }) { (data: Data, response: URLResponse) in } }}Combine
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  • Combine-Subject

    import Combine 1 创建PassthroughSubjectlet subject = PassthroughSubject() 2 订阅let subscription = subject.sink(receiveCompletion)}, receiveValue: { value in print(value)}) 3 发送数据subject.send(Hello)subject.send(Combine)subject.send(completion: .finished) * 输出 Hello Combine receiveCompletion *CurrentValueSubject保留一个最后的数据有value属性print(subject.value) 2 发送数据subject.send(Combine)print(subject.value) 3 订阅let subscription =subject.sink { value in print(value)} * 输出 Hello Combine Combine *
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  • Combine理论基础

    Combine 的实现基于观察者模式。Combine简介在现代 GUI 编程中,开发者会处理大量事件(包括网络,屏幕输入,系统通知等),根据事件去让界面发生变化。苹果为了帮助开发者简化异步编程,使代码更加简洁、易于维护,WWDC2019 发布了 Swift 的异步编程框架 — Combine。核心概念Combine 框架有三个核心概念发布者(Publisher):负责发布事件订阅者(Subscriber):负责订阅事件操作符(Operator):负责在Publisher和Subscriber响应式编程与Combine的对应关系.png?Combine概览.pngCombine特点 基于泛型:支持泛型 类型安全:Swift 会检查类型安全问题。
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  • Combine-Future

    成功的处理import UIKitimport Combine let future = Future { promise in DispatchQueue.main.asyncAfter(deadline)) }} let subscription = future.sink(receiveValue: { value in print(value)})失败的处理import UIKitimport Combine.failure(let error) = completion { 失败的处理 print(error) }}, receiveValue: { _ in 成功的处理})基本使用import Combine
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  • Combine-Subscriber

    CustomCombineIdentifierConvertible { 告诉 Publisher 可以发送多少个数据到 Subscriber func request(_ demand: Subscribers.Demand)} Back pressure Combine创建对象class Student { var name: String = }let stu = Student() 2 Just发送单个数据let publisher = Just(Hello Combine) 3 assign订阅,设置到foo的bar属性上publisher.assign(to: .name, on: stu) print(stu.name) * 输出Hello Combine*CancellableCombine另外 Combine 中还定义了AnyCancellable类,它也实现了 Cancellable 协议,这个类会在deinit时自动执行cancel方法。
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  • Combine-Publisher

    概念Combine 中包括Publisher在内的一系列角色都使用协议来进行定义,这是 Swift 面向协议编程思想的具体体现。
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  • boost :: hash_combine中的magic number

    boost::hash_combine模板函数采用一个散列(称为参考seed)和对象v。
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  • Path.Combine绝对与相对路径字符串

    我正尝试使用Path.Combine相对路径加入Windows路径。 但是,Path.Combine(@C:blah,@..bling)返回C:blah..bling而不是C:bling。
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  • Python Algorithms - C6 Divide and Combine and Conquer

    Python算法设计篇(6) Chapter 6: Divide and Combine and Conquer Divide and rule, a sound motto; Unite and lead本节主要介绍分治法策略,提到了树形问题的平衡性以及基于分治策略的排序算法本节的标题写全了就是:divide the problem instance, solve subproblems recursively, combine2.典型的分治法下面是典型分治法的伪代码,很容易理解对吧# Pseudocode(ish)def divide_and_conquer(S, divide, combine): if len(S) ==1: return S L, R = divide(S) A = divide_and_conquer(L, divide, combine) B = divide_and_conquer(R, divide, combine) return combine(A, B)用图形来表示如下,上面部分是分(division),下面部分是合(combination)?
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  • 【数据分析可视化】Concatenate和Combine

    1.960326 0.792735 0.927720 NaN 1 1.002970 -1.015684 0.524749 NaN 2 0.103341 -0.676568 0.378511 NaN Combinecombine_first特点 两组数据,当前一组nan时,后组填充。NaNC 4.0D NaNdtype: float64s2 = Series(, index=)s2A 1B 2C 3D 4dtype: int64# 后往前填充value值(当nan时后填充前)s1.combine_first3 NaN NaN NaN # 新建DataFramedf2 = DataFrame({ z:, a:})df2 z a 0 NaN 1 1 10.0 2 2 NaN 3 3 12.0 4 df1.combine_first
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  • 计算相对于某个根的路径Path.Combine的逆?

    有没有可靠的方法来计算Path.Combine()的逆?Path.Combine(“c: folder”,“subdirectory something.txt”)可能会返回类似于“c: folder subdirectory something.text
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  • 为什么Path.Combine不在驱动器指示符之后添加Path.DirectorySeparatorChar?

    var actual = Path.Combine(c:, filename);var expected = @c:filename;Assert.AreEqual(expected, actual)
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  • R数据分析大数据当中的化整为零(Split-Apply-Combine)策略

    这也就是所谓的Split-Apply-Combine Strategy策略。这在速度上会有比做一个loop有优势,因为它可以并行处理数据。什么时候我们需要使用到化整为零的策略呢?当然map-reduce策略的基础是网格,而这里的Split-Apply-Combine的基础完全可以是单机,甚至不支持并行处理的单机都可以。然而,化整为零并不是一个很直观的编程过程。这就是一个完整而简单的Split-Apply-Combine的过程了。
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  • Combine-Operator

    默认情况下,订阅某个 Publisher,Subscriber 中的Input和Failure要与 Publisher Output和Failure类型相同,但实际开发中往往是不同的,此时就需要借助Operator进行转换。Operator 遵守 Publisher 协议,负责从数据流上游的 Publisher 订阅值,经过转换生成新的 Publisher 发送给下游的 Subscriber。 Publisher,Operator 和 Subscriber 三者组成了数据流从发布,转换,到订阅的完整链条。简单案例Publisher 发布的值为Int类型的520,最后订阅以后输出String类型的值I Love You。中间通过map这个 Operator 进行转换。let _ = Just(520) .map { value -> String in return I Love You}.sink { receivedValue in print(最终的结果:(receivedValue))} * 输出最终的结果:I Love You*内置OperatorOperator 非常多,其中很多与 Swift 标准库的函数非常像,比如map, fliter等。Operator可以通过链式方式进行调用,在后面的案例中会进行讲解。下面按照功能对 Operator 进行了分类。转换scantryScansetFailureTypemaptryMapflatMap过滤compactMaptryCompactMapreplaceEmptyfiltertryFilterreplaceErrorremoveDuplicatestryRemoveDuplicates合规collectreducetryReduceignoreOutput数学运算maxtryMaxcountmintryMin匹配allSatisfytryAllSatisfycontainscontainsWheretryContainsWhere序列firstWheretryFirstWherefirstlastWheretryLastWherelastdropWhiletryDropWhiledropUntilOutputprependdropprefixUntilOutputprefixWhiletryPrefixWhileoutput组合combineLatestmergezip错误处理catchtryCatchassertNoFailureretrymapError调整Publisher类型switchToLatesteraseToAnyPublisher时间控制debouncedelaymeasureIntervalthrottletimeout编解码encodedecode多Publishermulticast调试breakpointhandleEventsprint
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  • PHP array_combine() 函数

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  • LeetCode 0175 - Combine Two Tables

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  • Combine-Foundation中的Publisher

    为了方便使用,Foundation 为 iOS 开发中的几个常见操作提供了直接获取 Publisher 的方式。URLSession PublisherTimer PublisherNotification PublisherKVO@PublishedURLSession Publisher这是 URLSession 新增的一种网络 API,通过这个 API 可以更加简单的完成网络请求数据转换等操作。 服务器返回的数据对应的Modelstruct NewsModel: Codable { var reason: String var error_code: Int var result:Result} struct Result: Codable { var stat: String var data:} 实现Hashable,List中的数据必须实现struct DataItem: Codable, Hashable { var title: String var date: String var category: String var author_name: String var url: String} let url = URL(string: http:v.juhe.cntoutiaoindex?type=top&key=d1287290b45a69656de361382bc56dcd)let request = URLRequest(url: url!)let session = URLSession.sharedlet backgroundQueue = DispatchQueue.global() let dataPublisher = session.dataTaskPublisher(for: request) .retry(5) .timeout(5, scheduler: backgroundQueue) .map{$0.data} .decode(type: NewsModel.self, decoder: JSONDecoder()) .subscribe(on: backgroundQueue) .eraseToAnyPublisher() let subscription = dataPublisher.receive(on: DispatchQueue.main) .sink(receiveCompletion: {_ in }) { newsModel in print(newsModel.result.data)}Timer Publisher当收到 Subscriber 请求时,大部分的 Publisher 会立即提供数据, 如 Just。但有一种符合 ConnectablePublisher 协议的 Publisher,它需要某种机制机制来启动数据流。而 Timer.TimerPublisher 就是这种类型的 Publisher。ConnectablePublisher 不同于普通的 Publisher,需要明确地对其调用connect() 或者 autoconnect()方法,它才会开始发送数据。autoconnect() every:间隔时间 on:在哪个线程 in:在哪个Runlooplet subscription = Timer.publish(every: 1, on: .main, in: .default) .autoconnect() .sink { _ in print(Hello)} 可以取消 subscription.cancel()connect() every:间隔时间 on:在哪个线程 in:在哪个Runlooplet timerPublisher = Timer.publish(every: 1, on: .main, in: .default) let cancellablePublisher = timerPublisher .sink { _ in print(Hello)} let subscription = timerPublisher.connect() 可以取消 subscription.cancel()Notification Publisher和 Timer 类似,Foundation 中的 NotificationCenter 也提供了创建 Publisher 的辅助 API。系统通知let subscription = NotificationCenter.default.publisher(for: UIApplication.willResignActiveNotification) .sink(receiveValue: { _ in print(App进入后台) })自定义通知 自定义通知名extension Notification.Name{ static var myNotiName:Notification.Name { return Notification.Name(YungFan) }} 订阅通知let subscription = NotificationCenter.default.publisher(for: .myNotiName) .sink(receiveValue: { notification in print(notification.object as? String) }) 创建通知let noti = Notification(name: .myNotiName, object: some info, userInfo: nil) 发送通知NotificationCenter.default.post(noti)SwiftUI 监听 App 进入后台和重返前台。struct ContentView : View { var body: some View { Text() onReceive捕获通知 .onReceive(NotificationCenter.default.publisher(for: UIApplication.willResignActiveNotification)) { _ in print(App进入后台) }.onReceive(NotificationCenter.default.publisher(for: UIApplication.willEnterForegroundNotification)) { _ in print(App进入前台) }.onAppear() { print(第一次显示) } }}KVO任何 NSObject 对象一旦被KVO监听,则可以成为一个 Publisher。class Person: NSObject { @objc dynamic var age: Int = 0} let person = Person() let _ = person.publisher(for: .age) .sink { newValue in print(person的age改成了(newValue)) } person.age = 10 改变时会收到通知@Published可以将任何一个属性转换成 Publisher,广泛应用于 UIKit 与 SwiftUI 中,此部分内容请参考《SwiftUI 实用教程》。class Student { @Published var name: String = zhangsan} let stu = Student() 访问的时候要带上$let subscription = stu.$name.sink { print($0)} stu.name = lisi *输出 zhangsan lisi *
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  • Combine SAC with RNN (part1)

    With the combination of sac and rnn. we can solve POMDP problem theoretically, but in practice, we face a lot problem.One of the most important problem is what kind of structure should we use? There are batch of valid choice, for example we can use the full length episode to feed rnn, or we can use a fixed length.With some investigate in this area, we choose a fixed length rnn. Another crutial problem is how to deal with different length of episodes. Me choice is discard any invalid sequence.We will release more implement details, stay tuned.class ReplayBuffer: A simple FIFO experience replay buffer for SAC agents. def __init__(self, obs_dim, act_dim, size, h_size, seq_length, flag=single): self.flag = flag self.sequence_length = seq_length self.ptr, self.size, self.max_size = 0, 0, size self.obs_dim = obs_dim size += seq_length # in case index is out of range self.obs1_buf = np.zeros(, dtype=np.float32) self.hidden_buf = np.zeros(, dtype=np.float32) self.acts_buf = np.zeros(, dtype=np.float32) self.rews_buf = np.zeros(, dtype=np.float32) self.done_buf = np.zeros(, dtype=np.float32) self.target_done_ratio = 0 def store(self, obs, s_t_0, act, rew, done): self.obs1_buf = obs self.hidden_buf = s_t_0 self.acts_buf = act self.rews_buf = rew self.done_buf = done self.ptr = (self.ptr + 1) % self.max_size # 1%20=1 2%20=2 21%20=1 self.size = min(self.size + 1, self.max_size) # use self.size to control sample range self.target_done_ratio = np.sum(self.done_buf) self.size def sample_batch(self, batch_size=32): :param batch_size: :return: s a r s d idxs_c = np.empty() # N T+1 for i in range(batch_size): end = False while not end: ind = np.random.randint(0, self.size - 5) # random sample a starting point in current buffer idxs = np.arange(ind, ind + self.sequence_length) # extend seq from starting point is_valid_pos = True if sum(self.done_buf) == 0 else (self.sequence_length - np.where(self.done_buf == 1)) == 2 end = True if is_valid_pos else False idxs_c = idxs np.random.shuffle(idxs_c) idxs = idxs_c.astype(int) # print(self.target_done_ratio, np.sum(self.done_buf) batch_size) data = dict(obs1=self.obs1_buf, s_t_0=self.hidden_buf, # slide N T H to N H acts=self.acts_buf, rews=self.rews_buf, done=self.done_buf) return data
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