Linux系统磁盘详解

所有有系统都一样,都是一种软件被安装于某个硬件之上,这个硬件无外非是一种存储设备,通常操作系统都是安装在磁盘中,所以Linux系统也是一样,都是安装在磁盘中,但是它与Windows系统不一样,因为Linux都是需要创建文件系统才可以使用。

1、 磁盘分类

目前市场上的磁盘分类有:IDE磁盘(多用于PC机)、SATA磁盘、SAS磁盘、SSD磁盘等这么几种分类,企业中服务器大多为后面的两种,SATA磁盘多用于企业内部的一些业务、SAS磁盘多用于对外的业务(一些业务平台)。

SATA磁盘目前容量最大为4T、SAS磁盘一般都在300G--600G居多,企业生产环境中使用也最多的是这种容量的,实际生产中磁盘的使用主要是看性能需求,也就是磁盘的读写速度。

2、 磁盘的体系结构

企业级服务器多块磁盘的情况

Linux系统磁盘详解Linux系统磁盘详解

3、 磁盘容量的计算

磁盘的结构一般包括磁道、盘面、扇区、碰头等

一个磁道的大小=512 字节*扇区数

一个盘面的大小=磁道的大小*磁道数

一个磁盘的大小=盘面大小*磁头数

因此,一个磁盘的容量=512 字节*扇区数*磁道数*磁头数

Linux系统磁盘详解Linux系统磁盘详解

4、 磁盘分区

所有磁盘的分区信息都是存储在分区表中,Linux系统仅支持4个分区表信息(主分区+扩展分区),一个分区表的大小在64bytes

Linux一般分为三个分区分别是:boot分区、swap分区、/根分区

Linux的分区编号:主分区1-4,逻辑分区从5开始计算

实际生产环境分区要求

1、 最少要有/和swap两个分区

2、 swap(虚拟内存)=1.5*物理内存大小,一般大小于或等于16G的物理内存的服务器,swap分区一般都直接设置为16G大小

3、 建议设置/boot分区,Linux引导分区,如内核文件等,一般所有文件一共才几十M的大小,因此这个分区就设置为100-200M即可

5、 磁盘分区工具fdisk

fdisk是针对磁盘容量小于2T

[root@cairui ~]# fdisk --help

fdisk: invalid option -- '-'

fdisk: Usage:

fdisk [options] change partition table

fdisk [options] -l list partition table(s)

fdisk -s give partition size(s) in blocks

Options:

-b sector size (512, 1024, 2048 or 4096)

-c switch off DOS-compatible mode

-h print help

-u give sizes in sectors instead of cylinders

-v print version

-C specify the number of cylinders

-H specify the number of heads

-S specify the number of sectors per track

: Success

Linux系统磁盘详解Linux系统磁盘详解

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/sda1  #对/dev/sda1进行分区操作

Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel

Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x02fadd9c.

Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.

After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to

switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to

sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): m

Command action

a toggle a bootable flag

b edit bsd disklabel

c toggle the dos compatibility flag

d delete a partition  #删除一个分区

l list known partition types

m print this menu

n add a new partition  #新建一个分区

o create a new empty DOS partition table

p print the partition table  #打印出分区表信息

q quit without saving changes  #不保存退出

s create a new empty Sun disklabel

t change a partition's system id

u change display/entry units

v verify the partition table

w write table to disk and exit  #将分区信息写入分区表并退出程序

x extra functionality (experts only)

Command action

e extended

p primary partition (1-4)

p

Partition number (1-4): 1

First cylinder (1-2610, default 1): 设置起始柱面

Using default value 1

Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size (1-2610, default 2610):

设置大小或柱面

Using default value 2610

Command (m for help): m

Command action

a toggle a bootable flag

b edit bsd disklabel

c toggle the dos compatibility flag

d delete a partition

l list known partition types

m print this menu

n add a new partition

o create a new empty DOS partition table

p print the partition table

q quit without saving changes

s create a new empty Sun disklabel

t change a partition's system id

u change display/entry units

v verify the partition table

w write table to disk and exit

x extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): w

The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

Syncing disks.

Command (m for help): p 打印分区表信息

255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders

Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

121 / 753

I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Disk identifier: 0xb712cc55

Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

分区完成后执行 partprobe 通知系统分区表发生改变

接下来进行格式化分区

[root@Centos ~]# mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdb1

mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Filesystem label=

OS type: Linux

Block size=4096 (log=2)

Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks

1310720 inodes, 5241198 blocks

262059 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

First data block=0

Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296

160 block groups

32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group

8192 inodes per group

Superblock backups stored on blocks:

32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,

4096000

Writing inode tables: done

Creating journal (32768 blocks): done

Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 24 mounts or

180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

[root@Centos ~]# tune2fs -c -1 /dev/sdb1

tune2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Setting maximal mount count to -1

[root@Centos ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt 挂载分区至/mnt 下

[root@Centos ~]# df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 50G 3.5G 44G 8% /

tmpfs 932M 0 932M 0% /dev/shm

/dev/sda1 485M 39M 421M 9% /boot

122 / 753

/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home 26G 215M 24G 1% /home

/dev/sdb1 20G 172M 19G 1% /mnt

6、 磁盘分区工具parted

由于环境限制无法有2T或者以上大小的磁盘,只能模拟环境来使用parted分区工具来进行分区

[root@Centos ~]# parted /dev/sdb mklabel gpt

将磁盘转换成 gpt 的格式

[root@Centos ~]# parted /dev/sdb mkpart primary 0 200(200M)

Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best

performance.

Ignore/Cancel? Ignore

[root@Centos ~]# parted /dev/sdb p 打印分区表信息

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdb: 1074MB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

Number Start End Size File system Name Flags

1 17.4kB 200MB 200MB primary

[root@Centos ~]# parted /dev/sdb mkpart primary 201 1073

分区并设置大小

Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

[root@Centos ~]# parted /dev/sdb p 打印分区表信息

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdb: 1074MB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: gpt

Number Start End Size File system Name Flags

1 17.4kB 200MB 200MB primary

2 201MB 1073MB 871MB primary

[root@Centos ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdb1

mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Filesystem label=

OS type: Linux

Block size=1024 (log=0)

Fragment size=1024 (log=0)

123 / 753

Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks

48960 inodes, 195296 blocks

9764 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

First data block=1

Maximum filesystem blocks=67371008

24 block groups

8192 blocks per group, 8192 fragments per group

2040 inodes per group

Superblock backups stored on blocks:

8193, 24577, 40961, 57345, 73729

Writing inode tables: done

Creating journal (4096 blocks): done

Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 36 mounts or

180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

[root@Centos ~]# tune2fs -c -1 /dev/sdb1

tune2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Setting maximal mount count to -1

[root@Centos ~]# mount /dev/sdb1 /mnt

[root@Centos ~]# df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root 50G 3.5G 44G 8% /

tmpfs 932M 0 932M 0% /dev/shm

/dev/sda1 485M 39M 421M 9% /boot

/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_home 26G 215M 24G 1% /home

/dev/sdb1 185M 5.6M 170M 4% /mnt

[root@cairui ~]# parted --help

Usage: parted [OPTION]... [DEVICE [COMMAND [PARAMETERS]...]...]

Apply COMMANDs with PARAMETERS to DEVICE. If no COMMAND(s) are given, run in

interactive mode.

OPTIONs:

-h, --help displays this help message

-l, --list lists partition layout on all block devices

-m, --machine displays machine parseable output

-s, --script never prompts for user intervention

-v, --version displays the version

-a, --align=[none|cyl|min|opt] alignment for new partitions

COMMANDs:

align-check TYPE N check partition N for TYPE(min|opt)

alignment

check NUMBER do a simple check on the file system

cp [FROM-DEVICE] FROM-NUMBER TO-NUMBER copy file system to another partition

help [COMMAND] print general help, or help on

COMMAND

mklabel,mktable LABEL-TYPE create a new disklabel (partition

table)

mkfs NUMBER FS-TYPE make a FS-TYPE file system on

partition NUMBER

mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END make a partition

mkpartfs PART-TYPE FS-TYPE START END make a partition with a file system

move NUMBER START END move partition NUMBER

name NUMBER NAME name partition NUMBER as NAME

print [devices|free|list,all|NUMBER] display the partition table,

available devices, free space, all found partitions, or a particular

partition

quit exit program

rescue START END rescue a lost partition near START

and END

resize NUMBER START END resize partition NUMBER and its file

system

rm NUMBER delete partition NUMBER

select DEVICE choose the device to edit

set NUMBER FLAG STATE change the FLAG on partition NUMBER

toggle [NUMBER [FLAG]] toggle the state of FLAG on partition

NUMBER

unit UNIT set the default unit to UNIT

version display the version number and

copyright information of GNU Parted

  • 发表于:
  • 原文链接http://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20180226A0ONOU00?refer=cp_1026
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