MongoDB权限、账户密码与端口

1.在安装MongoDB之后,先关闭auth认证,进入查看数据库,只有一个local库,admin库是不存在的:

> show dbs

admin 0.000GB #我这里创建好了

local 0.000GB

2.现在需要创建一个帐号,该账号需要有grant权限,即:账号管理的授权权限。注意一点,帐号是跟着库走的,所以在指定库里授权,必须也在指定库里验证(auth)。

> use admin

switched to db admin

> db.createUser(]})

user:用户名

pwd:密码

3.roles:指定用户的角色,可以用一个空数组给新用户设定空角色;在roles字段,可以指定内置角色和用户定义的角色。role里的角色可以选:

Built-In Roles(内置角色):

1. 数据库用户角色:read、readWrite;

2. 数据库管理角色:dbAdmin、dbOwner、userAdmin;

3. 集群管理角色:clusterAdmin、clusterManager、clusterMonitor、hostManager;

4. 备份恢复角色:backup、restore;

5. 所有数据库角色:readAnyDatabase、readWriteAnyDatabase、userAdminAnyDatabase、dbAdminAnyDatabase

6. 超级用户角色:root

// 这里还有几个角色间接或直接提供了系统超级用户的访问(dbOwner 、userAdmin、userAdminAnyDatabase)

7. 内部角色:__system

具体角色:

Read:允许用户读取指定数据库

readWrite:允许用户读写指定数据库

dbAdmin:允许用户在指定数据库中执行管理函数,如索引创建、删除,查看统计或访问system.profile

userAdmin:允许用户向system.users集合写入,可以找指定数据库里创建、删除和管理用户

clusterAdmin:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有分片和复制集相关函数的管理权限。

readAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的读权限

readWriteAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的读写权限

userAdminAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的userAdmin权限

dbAdminAnyDatabase:只在admin数据库中可用,赋予用户所有数据库的dbAdmin权限。

root:只在admin数据库中可用。超级账号,超级权限

4.刚建立了userAdminAnyDatabase角色,用来管理用户,可以通过这个角色来创建、删除用户。验证:需要开启auth参数

> show dbs; ####没有验证,导致没权限。

2015-06-29T10:02:16.634-0400 E QUERY Error: listDatabases failed:{

"ok" : 0,

"errmsg" : "not authorized on admin to execute command { listDatabases: 1.0 }",

"code" : 13

}

at Error ()

at Mongo.getDBs (src/mongo/shell/mongo.js:47:15)

at shellHelper.show (src/mongo/shell/utils.js:630:33)

at shellHelper (src/mongo/shell/utils.js:524:36)

at (shellhelp2):1:1 at src/mongo/shell/mongo.js:47

> use admin #验证,因为在admin下面添加的帐号,所以要到admin下面验证。

switched to db admin

> db.auth('zhurui','password')

> show dbs;

admin 0.078GB

local 0.078GB

> use test #在test库里创建帐号

switched to db test

> db.createUser(

... {

... user: "zjyr",

... pwd: "zjyr",

... roles: [

... { role: "read", db: "test" } #只读帐号

... ]

... }

... )

Successfully added user: {

"user" : "zjyr",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "read",

"db" : "test"

}

]

}

> db.createUser(

... {

... user: "zjy",

... pwd: "zjy",

... roles: [

... { role: "readWrite", db: "test" } #读写帐号

... ]

... }

... )

Successfully added user: {

"user" : "zjy",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "readWrite", #读写账号

"db" : "test"

}

]

}

> show users; #查看当前库下的用户

{

"_id" : "test.zjyr",

"user" : "zjyr",

"db" : "test",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "read",

"db" : "test"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "test.zjy",

"user" : "zjy",

"db" : "test",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "test"

}

]

}

登陆账号

db.auth('zjyr','zjyr')

5.所有的账户都是属于库,跟着库走的

此时admin库有的账户为zhurui

而test库中有zjy、zjyr

6.【待解决问题】

数据库不登陆账户也能写入数据

无写入权限的账户也能写入数据

查询test下的用户,并登陆只有可读权限的zjyr账户。结果插入数据成功

查询test下的用户,并登陆只有可读权限的zjyr账户。结果插入数据成功

查询内容,刚才数据插入成功

查询内容,刚才数据插入成功

刚学习MongoDB的小菜鸟,求大神指导

7.有没有一个超级权限?不仅可以授权,而且也可以对集合进行任意操作?答案是肯定的,只是不建议使用。那就是role角色设置成root

> db.auth('zhurui','password')

> db.createUser(

... {

... user: "superuser",

... pwd: "superuser",

... roles: [

... { role: "root", db: "admin" } #超级root帐号

... ]

... }

... )

Successfully added user: {

"user" : "superuser",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "root",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

> show users; #查看当前库下的用户

{

"_id" : "admin.zhurui",

"user" : "zhurui",

"db" : "admin",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "admin.superuser",

"user" : "superuser",

"db" : "admin",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "root",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

> use admin

switched to db admin

> db.auth('zhoujinyi','zhoujinyi')

> use test

switched to db test

WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

{ "_id" : ObjectId("5591539bb78649ebd8316857"), "a" : 1, "b" : 2 }

{ "_id" : ObjectId("559153a0b78649ebd8316858"), "a" : 1111, "b" : 2222 }

WriteResult({ "nRemoved" : 2 })

【注意事项】

8.因为帐号都是在当前需要授权的数据库下授权的,那要是不在当前数据库下会怎么样?

admin

> db.createUser(

... {

... user: "dxy",

... pwd: "dxy",

... roles: [

... { role: "readWrite", db: "test" }, #在当前库下创建其他库的帐号,在admin库下创建test、abc库的帐号

... { role: "readWrite", db: "abc" }

... ]

... }

... )

Successfully added user: {

"user" : "dxy",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "test"

},

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "abc"

}

]

}

> show users;

{

"_id" : "admin.zhurui",

"user" : "zhurui",

"db" : "admin",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "admin.superuser",

"user" : "superuser",

"db" : "admin",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "root",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "admin.dxy",

"user" : "dxy",

"db" : "admin",

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "test"

},

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "abc"

}

]

}

> use test

switched to db test

> db.auth('dxy','dxy') #在admin下创建的帐号,不能直接在其他库验证,

Error: 18 Authentication failed.

> use admin

switched to db admin #只能在帐号创建库下认证,再去其他库进行操作。

> db.auth('dxy','dxy')

> use test

switched to db test

WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

switched to db abc

WriteResult({ "nInserted" : 1 })

上面更加进一步说明数据库帐号是跟着数据库来走的,哪里创建哪里认证。

9.创建了这么多帐号,怎么查看所有帐号

> use admin

switched to db admin

> db.auth('zhurui','password')

{

"_id" : "admin.zhurui",

"user" : "zhurui",

"db" : "admin",

"credentials" : {

"SCRAM-SHA-1" : {

"iterationCount" : 10000,

"salt" : "KfDUzCOIUo7WVjFr64ZOcQ==",

"storedKey" : "t4sPsKG2dXnZztVYj5EgdUzT9sc=",

"serverKey" : "2vCGiq9NIc1zKqeEL6VvO4rP26A="

}

},

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "userAdminAnyDatabase",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "test.zjyr",

"user" : "zjyr",

"db" : "test",

"credentials" : {

"SCRAM-SHA-1" : {

"iterationCount" : 10000,

"salt" : "h1gOW3J7wzJuTqgmmQgJKQ==",

"storedKey" : "7lkoANdxM2py0qiDBzFaZYPp1cM=",

"serverKey" : "Qyu6IRNyaKLUvqJ2CAa/tQYY36c="

}

},

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "read",

"db" : "test"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "test.zjy",

"user" : "zjy",

"db" : "test",

"credentials" : {

"SCRAM-SHA-1" : {

"iterationCount" : 10000,

"salt" : "afwaKuTYPWwbDBduQ4Hm7g==",

"storedKey" : "ebb2LYLn4hiOVlZqgrAKBdStfn8=",

"serverKey" : "LG2qWwuuV+FNMmr9lWs+Rb3DIhQ="

}

},

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "test"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "admin.superuser",

"user" : "superuser",

"db" : "admin",

"credentials" : {

"SCRAM-SHA-1" : {

"iterationCount" : 10000,

"salt" : "pE2cSOYtBOYevk8tqrwbSQ==",

"storedKey" : "TwMxdnlB5Eiaqg4tNh9ByNuUp9A=",

"serverKey" : "Mofr9ohVlFfR6/md4LMRkOhXouc="

}

},

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "root",

"db" : "admin"

}

]

}

{

"_id" : "admin.dxy",

"user" : "dxy",

"db" : "admin",

"credentials" : {

"SCRAM-SHA-1" : {

"iterationCount" : 10000,

"salt" : "XD6smcWX4tdg/ZJPoLxxRg==",

"storedKey" : "F4uiayykHDp/r9krAKZjdr+gqjM=",

"serverKey" : "Kf51IU9J3RIrB8CFn5Z5hEKMSkw="

}

},

"roles" : [

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "test"

},

{

"role" : "readWrite",

"db" : "abc"

}

]

}

10.备份还原使用那个角色的帐号?之前创建的帐号zjy:test库读写权限;zjyr:test库读权限

root@zhoujinyi:~# mongodump --port=27010 -uzjyr -pzjyr --db=test -o backup #只要读权限就可以备份

2015-06-29T11:20:04.864-0400 writing test.abc to backup/test/abc.bson

2015-06-29T11:20:04.865-0400 writing test.abc metadata to backup/test/abc.metadata.json

2015-06-29T11:20:04.866-0400 done dumping test.abc

2015-06-29T11:20:04.867-0400 writing test.system.indexes to backup/test/system.indexes.bson

root@zhoujinyi:~# mongorestore --port=27010 -uzjy -pzjy --db=test backup/test/ #读写权限可以进行还原

2015-06-29T11:20:26.607-0400 building a list of collections to restore from backup/test/ dir

2015-06-29T11:20:26.609-0400 reading metadata file from backup/test/abc.metadata.json

2015-06-29T11:20:26.609-0400 restoring test.abc from file backup/test/abc.bson

2015-06-29T11:20:26.611-0400 error: E11000 duplicate key error index: test.abc.$_id_ dup key: { : ObjectId('559154efb78649ebd831685a') }

2015-06-29T11:20:26.611-0400 restoring indexes for collection test.abc from metadata

2015-06-29T11:20:26.612-0400 finished restoring test.abc

2015-06-29T11:20:26.612-0400 done

【遇到问题】

# mongodump

-bash: mongodump: command not found

# ./mongodump

2017-11-15T15:25:14.981+0800Failed: error connecting to db server: no reachable servers

> mongodump

2017-11-15T15:54:14.271+0800 E QUERY [thread1] ReferenceError: mongodump is not defined :

@(shell):1:1

不能通过mongodump等命令连接到MongoDB

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  • 原文链接http://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20180308G0IS5O00?refer=cp_1026
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  • 如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

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