10分钟搞定Linux正则表达式

正则表达式是一种字符模式,用于在查找过程中匹配制定的字符。

元字符通常在Linux中分为两类:

Shell元字符,由Linux Shell进行解析;正则表达式元字符,由vi/grep/sed/awk等文本处理工具进行解析;正则表达式一般以文本行进行处理,在进行下面实例之前,先为grep命令设置--color参数:

$ alias grep='grep --color=auto'

这样每次过滤出来的字符串都会带色彩了。

在开始之前还需要做一件事情,就是创建一个测试用的re-file文件,内容如下:

$ cat re-fileI had a lovely time on our little picnic.Lovers were all around us. It is springtime. Ohlove, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.is forever. I live for you. It's hard to get back in thegroove.

$ cat linux.txtLinux is a goodgod assdxw bcvnbvbjkgreatttttt wexcvxcoperaaaating dhfghfvxgooodfs awrerdxxhklgdsystem awxxxxgladgood

正则表达式元字符

特殊的元字符

扩展的正则表达式

实操

匹配以love开头的所有行

$ grep '^love' re-filelove, how much I adore you. Do you know

匹配love结尾的所有行

$ grep 'love$' re-fileclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.

匹配以l开头,中间包含两个字符,结尾是e的所有行

$ grep 'l..e' re-fileI had a lovely time on our little picnic.love, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.is forever. I live for you. It's hard to get back in the

匹配0个或多个空行,后面是love的字符

$ grep ' *love' re-fileI had a lovely time on our little picnic.love, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.

匹配love或Love

$ grep '[Ll]ove' re-file # 对l不区分大小写I had a lovely time on our little picnic.Lovers were all around us. It is springtime. Ohlove, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.

匹配A-Z的字母,其次是ove

$ grep '[A-Z]ove' re-fileLovers were all around us. It is springtime. Oh

匹配不在A-Z范围内的任何字符行,所有的小写字符

$ grep '[^A-Z]' re-fileI had a lovely time on our little picnic.Lovers were all around us. It is springtime. Ohlove, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.is forever. I live for you. It's hard to get back in thegroove.

匹配love.

$ grep 'love\.' re-fileclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.

匹配空格

$ grep '^$' re-file

匹配任意字符

$ grep '.*' re-fileI had a lovely time on our little picnic.Lovers were all around us. It is springtime. Ohlove, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.is forever. I live for you. It's hard to get back in thegroove.

前面o字符重复2到4次

$ grep 'o\' re-filegroove.

重复o字符至少2次

$ grep 'o\' re-filegroove.

重复0字符最多2次

$ grep 'o\{,2\}' re-fileI had a lovely time on our little picnic.Lovers were all around us. It is springtime. Ohlove, how much I adore you. Do you knowthe extent of my love? Oh, by the way, I thinkI lost my gloves somewhere out in that field ofclover. Did you see them? I can only hope love.is forever. I live for you. It's hard to get back in thegroove.

重复前一个字符一个或一个以

$ egrep "go+d" linux.txtLinux is a goodgod assdxw bcvnbvbjkgooodfs awrerdxxhklgood#####0个或者一个字符ansheng@Ubuntu:/tmp$ egrep "go?d" linux.txtgod assdxw bcvnbvbjkgdsystem awxxxx

或,查找多个字符串

$ egrep "gd|good" linux.txtLinux is a goodgdsystem awxxxxgood

分组过滤匹配

$ egrep "g(la|oo)d" linux.txtLinux is a goodgladgood

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  • 原文链接https://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20181007A0V0FK00?refer=cp_1026
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