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又到抢票高峰期,用python写一个简单的12306抢票软件

引言

每逢过年就到了12306抢票高峰期,自己总想研究一下12306购票的流程,虽然网上已经很多资料,但是总比不过自己的亲身体会,于是便琢磨着写一个抢票软件,本人比较熟悉python,所以软件是用python写的。

使用工具和库

开发环境是python3.6.2

开发工具是pycharm

辅助工具fiddler(神器)

使用到的重要库:

界面(tkinter)

http请求(requests库)

打包(pyinstaller库)

思考过程

其实本人职业并不是开发人员,任职是测试,但是喜欢平时用python写点小东西,所以开发大大们莫见笑。不废话,说说我才开始做的思考过程。

1.首先代码需要涉及前端和后台两个部分,前端我查了PyQt和Tkinter,觉得我这小东西没必要用PyQt,画个简单的前端即可,所以选择使用Tkinter

2.后台代码就是模拟12306订票流程,所以选择requests库做http请求

3.12306订票流程怎么去分解?fiddler神器帮了大忙,我就去12306官网正常登录购票,把整个流程的包全部抓到,然后分析请求数据和返回数据,后台代码就比较容易写了

4.根据后台代码的逻辑和返回,编写前端的用户提示和跳转

模拟12306购票流程

第一步登录:

在你登录12306网站的时候,网页会get一个验证码图片,这个步骤封装方法如下:

def get_img(self):

url="https://kyfw.12306.cn/passport/captcha/captcha-image?login_site=E&module=login&rand=sjrand&{}".format(random.random())

response=self.session.get(url=url,headers=self.headers,cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

path = os.path.abspath('..')

with open(path+"\img.jpg",'wb') as f:

f.write(response.content)

值得注意的是在抓包的时候发现请求里有个随机数,这里get请求需要带上这个随机数,所以使用了

random()

headers可以在初始化的时候写好

self.headers = {

'Accept-Encoding': 'gzip, deflate, br',

'Accept-Language': 'zh-CN,zh;q=0.8',

'X-Requested-With': 'XMLHttpRequest',

'Origin': 'https://kyfw.12306.cn',

'User-Agent': 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/53.0.2785.104 Safari/537.36 Core/1.53.4355.400 QQBrowser/9.7.12672.400',

'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8',

'Accept': 'application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01',

}

cookies会在你登录的时候自动保存在session里面 验证码图片可以保存在本地文件夹,然后给前端调用

根据fiddler抓到包的顺序来看,12306是先验证验证码,再验证帐号和密码,所以我们第一步是发送验证码信息给12306

验证码是由8个图片组成,12306服务器是校验的用户点击坐标来识别的,这里我们直接固定给出每个图片的中心坐标,简化了验证逻辑

def verify(self, clickList):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/passport/captcha/captcha-check'

code = ['35,35', '105,35', '175,35', '245,35', '35,105', '105,105', '175,105', '245,105']

verifyList = []

for a in clickList:

verifyList.append(code[int(a)])

codeList = ','.join(verifyList)

data = {

'answer': codeList,

'login_site': 'E',

'rand': 'sjrand',

'_json_att':"",

}

response = self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

resultCode = dic['result_code']

resultMsg = dic['result_message']

self.verifyInfo = resultMsg

if str(resultCode) == "4":

return "verifySuccessful"

else:

return False

这是封装好的验证码验证逻辑

接下来就是要验证帐号和密码,根据fiddler抓包来看,验证一共发了三个请求,获得了一些需要后续验证在线的key,下面给出代码

def login(self, account, password):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/passport/web/login'

data = {

'username': account,

'password': password,

'appid': 'otn',

'_json_att': "",

}

response = self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

resultCode = dic['result_code']

resultMsg = dic['result_message']

self.loginInfo = resultMsg

if resultCode == 0:

print('登陆成功')

else:

return "loginFail"

if 'uamtk' in dic.keys():

Func12306.uamtk = dic['uamtk']

url2 = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/passport/web/auth/uamtk'

data2 = {

"appid": "otn",

'_json_att':""

}

# Func12306.cookies['uamtk'] = Func12306.uamtk

response2 = self.session.post(url=url2, data=data2, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic2 = loads(response2.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

resultCode2 = dic['result_code']

resultMsg2 = dic['result_message']

self.loginInfo = resultMsg2

if resultCode2 == 0:

print('验证通过')

else:

return "authFail"

if 'newapptk' in dic2.keys():

Func12306.tk = dic2["newapptk"]

# Func12306.cookies.pop('uamtk')

# Func12306.cookies['tk'] = Func12306.tk

url3 = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/uamauthclient'

data3 = {"tk": Func12306.tk,

'_json_att': "",

}

response3 = self.session.post(url=url3, data=data3, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic3 = loads(response3.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

resultCode3 = dic3['result_code']

resultMsg3 = dic3['result_message']

self.loginInfo = resultMsg3

if resultCode3 == 0:

return "LoginSuccessful"

else:

return False

登录成功后,我们需要前端跳转到我们自己设计的抢票UI上,UI的设计比较简陋,我给个图

查询用户联系人信息

这里和12306逻辑不一样的是,我们是抢票软件,联系是提前选择好的,而12306是在购票的时候填写的,所以我们要先提前获取到联系人然后插入到我们的前端里面,下面给出联系人的获取

def get_passenger_info(self):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/getPassengerDTOs'

data = {

"_json_att": "",

"REPEAT_SUBMIT_TOKEN": Func12306.reSubmitTk

}

response = self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['messages'] != []:

if dic['messages'][0] == '系统忙,请稍后重试':

return 'systembusy'

Func12306.passengerAllInfoList = dic['data']['normal_passengers']

for a in Func12306.passengerAllInfoList:

Func12306.passengerNameList.append(a['passenger_name'])

Func12306.passengerIdList.append(a['passenger_id_no'])

Func12306.passengerPhoneList.append(a['mobile_no'])

return Func12306.passengerNameList

查询车次

联系人获取完毕,座位类型是自己研究12306后固定写上去的

这个时候下一步就是查询车次

这里给出代码

def search_ticket(self, startStation, endStation, startDate):

try:

Func12306.cookies['_jc_save_fromDate'] = startDate

Func12306.cookies['_jc_save_fromStation'] = (parse.quote(startStation.encode('unicode_escape').decode('latin-1') + ',' + self.stationCodeDict[startStation]).replace('\','%')).upper().replace('%5CU', '%u')

Func12306.cookies['_jc_save_toDate'] = startDate

Func12306.cookies['_jc_save_toStation'] = (parse.quote(endStation.encode('unicode_escape').decode('latin-1') + ',' + self.stationCodeDict[endStation]).replace('\','%')).upper().replace('%5CU', '%u')

Func12306.cookies['_jc_save_wfdc_flag'] = "dc"

except:

return "wrongtype"

try:

url1 = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/leftTicket/log?leftTicketDTO.train_date={}&leftTicketDTO.from_station={}&leftTicketDTO.to_station={}&purpose_codes=ADULT'.format(startDate, self.stationCodeDict[startStation], self.stationCodeDict[endStation])

except:

return "wrongtype"

response1 = self.session.get(url=url1, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

try:

dic1 = loads(response1.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic1['status']:

print("OK")

else:

return "searchFail"

try:

url2 = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/{}?leftTicketDTO.train_date={}&leftTicketDTO.from_station={}&leftTicketDTO.to_station={}&purpose_codes=ADULT'.format(Func12306.query, startDate, self.stationCodeDict[startStation], self.stationCodeDict[endStation])

except:

return "wrongtype"

response2 = self.session.get(url=url2, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

try:

dic2 = loads(response2.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic2 == "":

return "NetWorkError"

if dic2['status'] is False:

if 'c_url' in dic2.keys():

Func12306.query = dic2['c_url']

return "statusError"

return "statusError"

# elif dic2["messages"] != []:

# # if dic["messages"][0] == u"选择的查询日期不在预售日期范围内":

# return "search_error002"

else:

print("查询车成功")

Func12306.trainInfoStartTimeList, Func12306.trainInfoEndTimeList, Func12306.trainInfoSecretStrList, Func12306.trainInfoNameList, Func12306.trainInfoLocationList, Func12306.trainInfoNoList = [], [], [], [], [], []

Func12306.dw, Func12306.swz, Func12306.ydz, Func12306.edz, Func12306.yz, Func12306.yw, Func12306.wz, Func12306.rw, Func12306.gjrw, Func12306.tdz, Func12306.rz = [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []

Func12306.seatTypeList = (Func12306.edz, Func12306.ydz, Func12306.yz, Func12306.rz, Func12306.yw, Func12306.rw, Func12306.dw, Func12306.wz, Func12306.swz, Func12306.tdz, Func12306.gjrw)

for a in dic2['data']['result']:

Func12306.trainInfoSecretStrList.append(a.split("|")[0])

Func12306.trainInfoNoList.append(a.split("|")[2])

Func12306.trainInfoNameList.append(a.split("|")[3])

Func12306.trainInfoStartTimeList.append(a.split("|")[8])

Func12306.trainInfoEndTimeList.append(a.split("|")[9])

Func12306.trainInfoLocationList.append(a.split("|")[15])

Func12306.dw.append(a.split("|")[33])

Func12306.swz.append(a.split("|")[32])

Func12306.ydz.append(a.split("|")[31])

Func12306.edz.append(a.split("|")[30])

Func12306.yz.append(a.split("|")[29])

Func12306.yw.append(a.split("|")[28])

Func12306.wz.append(a.split("|")[26])

Func12306.tdz.append(a.split("|")[25])

Func12306.rz.append(a.split("|")[24])

Func12306.rw.append(a.split("|")[23])

Func12306.gjrw.append(a.split("|")[21])

Func12306.seatTypeList = (

Func12306.edz, Func12306.ydz, Func12306.yz, Func12306.rz, Func12306.yw, Func12306.rw, Func12306.dw,

Func12306.wz, Func12306.swz, Func12306.tdz, Func12306.gjrw)

return Func12306.trainInfoNameList

这里值得注意的是查询出来的结果是用“|分隔的很多信息,需要自己研究每个位置是什么信息,可以对照12306页面研究,然后把获取的信息返回给前端调用

还有重要一点要注意就是12306的url不是固定的,它会带一个随机的大字字母在url里,我们可以先随便写一个,然后从返回值里获取到这个大写字母

抢票逻辑

这个时候我们就可以让用户选择车次和联系人以及座位类型,然后就可以进入抢票逻辑

抢票需要发送很多请求

首先我们要知道我们要买的票到底有还是没有

def check_ticket(self, startStation, endStation, startDate, seatType, passengersList, trainName):

searchResult = self.search_ticket(startStation, endStation, startDate)

# print(searchResult)

# print(Func12306.edz)

if searchResult == "wrongtype":

return "wrongtype"

if searchResult == "NetWorkError":

return "NetWorkError"

if searchResult == "searchFail":

return "searchFail"

if searchResult == "statusError":

return "statusError"

if searchResult == "search_error002":

return "search_error002"

for a in trainName:

try:

trainIndex = Func12306.trainInfoNameList.index(a)

except:

return "listNeedRefresh"

for b in seatType:

# print(trainIndex)

# print(b)

# print(Func12306.seatTypeList)

# print(Func12306.seatTypeList[b])

if Func12306.trainInfoSecretStrList[trainIndex] == 'null':

print('没票了')

break

elif Func12306.seatTypeList[b][trainIndex] == u"无" or Func12306.seatTypeList[b][trainIndex] == "" :

print("没票了")

continue

elif Func12306.seatTypeList[b][trainIndex] == "*":

print("还没开始售票")

continue

elif Func12306.seatTypeList[b][trainIndex] != u"有" and len(passengersList) > int(Func12306.seatTypeList[b][trainIndex]):

print("票没人多")

continue

else:

print("查询到有票")

Func12306.trainIndexOfBuy = trainIndex

Func12306.seatIndexOfBuy = b

return Func12306.seatTypeList[b][trainIndex]

这里面还涉及多人购买的时候,票不够人多的情况,我这边处理是没足够的票,大家就都不买,要买一起买 。如果票足够了,我们就开始进入购票环节

首先需要验证用户信息

def check_user(self):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/login/checkUser'

data = {"_json_att": ""}

# self.headers["Cache-Control"] = "no-cache"

# self.headers["If-Modified-Since"] = "0"

response = self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['data']['flag']:

print("用户在线验证成功")

return True

else:

print('检查到用户不在线,请重新登陆')

return False

验证完之后需要开始提交订单

def submit_order(self, startStation, endStation, startDate):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/leftTicket/submitOrderRequest'

data = {"secretStr": parse.unquote(Func12306.trainInfoSecretStrList[Func12306.trainIndexOfBuy]),

"train_date": startDate,

"back_train_date": startDate,

"tour_flag": "dc",

"purpose_codes": "ADULT",

"query_from_station_name": startStation,

"query_to_station_name": endStation,

"undefined": ""

}

response=self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers,cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['status']:

print('提交订单成功')

return True

elif dic['messages'] != []:

if dic['messages'][0] == "车票信息已过期,请重新查询最新车票信息":

print('车票信息已过期,请重新查询最新车票信息')

return "ticketInfoOutData"

else:

print("提交失败")

return False

提交完然后开始确认联系人信息

def confirm_passenger(self):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/initDc'

data = {"_json_att": ''}

response=self.session.post(url=url,data=data,headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

Func12306.reSubmitTk = re.findall(u'globalRepeatSubmitToken = '(S+?)'',response.text)[0]

Func12306.keyIsChange = re.findall(u'key_check_isChange':'(S+?)'',response.text)[0]

Func12306.leftTicketStr = re.findall(u'leftTicketStr':'(S+?)'',response.text)[0]

except:

print("获取KEY失败")

return 'NetWorkError'

def get_passenger_info(self):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/getPassengerDTOs'

data = {

"_json_att": "",

"REPEAT_SUBMIT_TOKEN": Func12306.reSubmitTk

}

response = self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['messages'] != []:

if dic['messages'][0] == '系统忙,请稍后重试':

return 'systembusy'

Func12306.passengerAllInfoList = dic['data']['normal_passengers']

for a in Func12306.passengerAllInfoList:

Func12306.passengerNameList.append(a['passenger_name'])

Func12306.passengerIdList.append(a['passenger_id_no'])

Func12306.passengerPhoneList.append(a['mobile_no'])

return Func12306.passengerNameList

确认好联系人之后,需要开始确认订单

def check_order(self, passengersList):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/checkOrderInfo'

passengerTicketStr = ""

oldPassengerStr = ""

for a in passengersList:

passengerTicketStr += Func12306.seatCodeList[Func12306.seatIndexOfBuy] + ",0,1,{},1,{},{},N_".format(Func12306.passengerNameList[a], Func12306.passengerIdList[a], Func12306.passengerPhoneList[a])

oldPassengerStr += "{},1,{},1_".format(Func12306.passengerNameList[a], Func12306.passengerIdList[a])

data = {

"cancel_flag": "2",

"bed_level_order_num": "000000000000000000000000000000",

"passengerTicketStr": passengerTicketStr,

"oldPassengerStr": oldPassengerStr,

"tour_flag": "dc",

"randCode": "",

"whatsSelect": "1",

"_json_att": "",

"REPEAT_SUBMIT_TOKEN": Func12306.reSubmitTk

}

response = self.session.post(url=url, data=data, headers=self.headers,cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['data']['submitStatus'] is True:

if dic['data']['ifShowPassCode'] == 'N':

return True

if dic['data']['ifShowPassCode'] == 'Y':

return "Need Random Code"

else:

print("checkOrderFail")

return False

这里有几点需要注意:

1.在这个过程之前,12306会get一张新验证码图片,在购票紧张的时候会在购票时候弹出给你填,如果购票不紧张就不会有但是我们要get到这张图

2.判断要不要填这个验证的key在上面代码里’ifShowPassCode’ == ‘Y’就是要填,我们要做判断

这里给出新验证码的获取代码

def get_buy_image(self):

url='https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/passcodeNew/getPassCodeNew?module=passenger&rand=randp&{}'.format(random.random())

response=self.session.get(url=url,headers=self.headers,cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

path = os.path.abspath('..')

with open(path + "\img.jpg", 'wb') as f:

f.write(response.content)

确认订单成功之后,我们就要开始进入购票队列

def get_queue_count(self, startStation, endStation, startDate, seatType):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/getQueueCount'

thatdaydata = datetime.datetime.strptime(startDate, "%Y-%m-%d")

train_date = "{} {} {} {} 00:00:00 GMT+0800 (中国标准时间)".format(thatdaydata.strftime('%a'),

thatdaydata.strftime('%b'), startDate.split('-')[2],

startDate.split('-')[0])

data = {

"train_date": train_date,

"train_no": Func12306.trainInfoNoList[Func12306.trainIndexOfBuy],

"stationTrainCode": Func12306.trainInfoNameList[Func12306.trainIndexOfBuy],

"seatType": Func12306.seatCodeList[Func12306.seatIndexOfBuy],

"fromStationTelecode": self.stationCodeDict[startStation],

"toStationTelecode": self.stationCodeDict[endStation],

"leftTicket": Func12306.leftTicketStr,

"purpose_codes": "00",

"train_location": Func12306.trainInfoLocationList[Func12306.trainIndexOfBuy],

"_json_att": "",

"REPEAT_SUBMIT_TOKEN": Func12306.reSubmitTk

}

response=self.session.post(url=url,data=data,headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['status']:

print("进入队列成功")

return True

else:

print("进入队列失败")

return False

然后确认单人队列

def confirm_single_for_queue(self, seatType, passengersList, clickList = None):

url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/confirmSingleForQueue'

passengerTicketStr = ""

oldPassengerStr = ""

for a in passengersList:

passengerTicketStr += Func12306.seatCodeList[Func12306.seatIndexOfBuy] + ",0,1,{},1,{},{},N_".format(Func12306.passengerNameList[a], Func12306.passengerIdList[a], Func12306.passengerPhoneList[a])

oldPassengerStr += "{},1,{},1_".format(Func12306.passengerNameList[a], Func12306.passengerIdList[a])

if clickList is not None:

code = ['35,35', '105,35', '175,35', '245,35', '35,105', '105,105', '175,105', '245,105']

verifyList = []

for a in clickList:

verifyList.append(code[int(a)])

codeList = ','.join(verifyList)

print(codeList)

else:

codeList = ''

data = {

"passengerTicketStr": passengerTicketStr,

"oldPassengerStr": oldPassengerStr,

"randCode": codeList,

"purpose_codes": "00",

"key_check_isChange": Func12306.keyIsChange,

"leftTicketStr": Func12306.leftTicketStr,

"train_location": Func12306.trainInfoLocationList[Func12306.trainIndexOfBuy],

"choose_seats": "",

"seatDetailType": "000",

"whatsSelect": "1",

"roomType": "00",

"dwAll": "N",

"_json_att": "",

"REPEAT_SUBMIT_TOKEN": Func12306.reSubmitTk

}

response=self.session.post(url=url,data=data, headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies, verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if 'data' in dic.keys():

if dic['data']['submitStatus'] is True:

print("提交订单成功")

return True

elif dic['data']['errMsg'] == u"验证码输入错误!":

return "wrongCode"

else:

print("提交订单失败")

return False

如果以上都成功了,就会进入一个等待订单生成了过程

def wait_time(self):

url='https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/confirmPassenger/queryOrderWaitTime?random={}&tourFlag=dc&_json_att=&REPEAT_SUBMIT_TOKEN={}'.format(round(time.time()*1000),Func12306.reSubmitTk)

response=self.session.get(url=url,headers=self.headers, cookies=Func12306.cookies,verify=False)

try:

dic = loads(response.content)

except:

return "NetWorkError"

if dic['status']:

if dic['data']['queryOrderWaitTimeStatus']:

if dic['data']['waitTime'] > 0 :

return dic['data']['waitTime']

elif dic['data']['waitTime'] == -1:

Func12306.orderId = ''

Func12306.orderId = dic['data']['orderId']

return dic['data']['waitTime']

else:

return False

else:

return False

else:

return False

这里会有等待时间,我们获取到等待时间,然后再次发送这个请求,一直循环,直到等待时间为-1就是购票成功了 这个时候就可以开心的去12306上查询订单然后付款

结语

和大家分享一下,有兴趣的小伙伴们可以去试试哦! 一方面是检验一下自己的学习成果,另一方面也希望能帮你解决一下抢票的问题吧! 不过试试归试试,还是要做2手准备哦。不要全部寄托在软件的便利上面,要经过试验才知道能否成功。

很多细节在码代码的时候遇到,但是现在总结可能就忘了说,博客写的比较粗,没有写得那么详细。 最后,希望也在研究12306的朋友可以在这里有所收获

最后,喜欢学习python可以关注我们哦

  • 发表于:
  • 原文链接https://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20190112A0BRJZ00?refer=cp_1026
  • 腾讯「腾讯云开发者社区」是腾讯内容开放平台帐号(企鹅号)传播渠道之一,根据《腾讯内容开放平台服务协议》转载发布内容。
  • 如有侵权,请联系 cloudcommunity@tencent.com 删除。

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