『阅读源代码的姿势:以 go-restful 为例』

go-restful.png

go-restful-code.png

大家好,我叫谢伟,是一名程序员。

下面结合我的经历和见闻,讲述下一名非科班程序员的成长过程:

  • 学习一门编程语言
  • 写尽量多的代码
  • 补尽量多的基础知识
  • 一定阶段后(有开发任务,能按时完成),开始思考架构:即如何更好的设计一个项目
  • 阅读源代码,看热门的项目的源代码
  • 重点梳理源代码的流程而不是细节
  • 借鉴好的源代码的思路编写程序
  • 掌握更多的软件设计知识
  • 架构师:技术选型、设计
  • ...

一般初学者确定一个方向,比如web 后端、前端等,会选择一门编程语言深入下去,比如后端java、python、go等。通过项目不断练习编程语言和编程思维,知道如何将需求实现出来。一段时间后,有可能算是某一阶段的瓶颈,希望写出更好的代码,除了继续做项目之外,更好的方式是阅读某一个库或者某一项目的源代码,从源代码里学习一些编程的处理方式,之后借鉴到自己的项目中。突破瓶颈,继续精进技能。

一般的软件构建过程是这样的:

  • 设计:方案确定
  • 编写代码
    • 编码风格
    • 技术选型
    • 子程序
    • 语句
  • 测试
  • 联调
  • 迭代:继续改善代码

本节的主题是:如何阅读源代码?

1. 明确你的问题

开源领域,值得学习的东西太多了,你应该明确知道你需要解决的问题是什么,才能针对性的对某一项目或者某一库进行源代码的阅读。

2. 示例

go-restful是用于构建REST-style web服务的golang包。

在这之前我们需要了解下 HTTP 协议、Web 客户端、服务端。

这些知识和我们访问网址获取到的信息息息相关。

我们在浏览器中输入:URLwww.baidu.com)的整体过程如下:

  • 浏览器(客户端)请求DNS(域名管理系统),获取IP
  • IP 能够找到对应的服务器
  • 建立TCP 服务
  • 服务器根据请求处理请求包(HTTP Request)
  • 服务器返回HTTP Response
  • 浏览器(客户端)收到响应后渲染Response 包里的主体(body)
  • 断开连接,浏览器显示网页信息

我们关注里面的:HTTP RequestHTTP Response

随意找个网页查看源代码看看:

HTTP Request.png

HTTP 协议:HTTP Request

GET /u/58f0817209aa HTTP/1.1
Host: www.jianshu.com
Connection: keep-alive
Pragma: no-cache
Cache-Control: no-cache
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/66.0.3359.181 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8
Referer: https://www.jianshu.com/
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: zh-CN,zh;q=0.9,en;q=0.8

主要包括:

  • 请求行: 请求方法、请求URI、HTTP 协议、协议版本
  • 服务端信息: Host、...
  • 消息体

HTTP 协议 HTTP Response

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sun, 20 May 2018 03:19:36 GMT
Server: Tengine
Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
X-Frame-Options: DENY
X-XSS-Protection: 1; mode=block
X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff
Content-Security-Policy: script-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline' 'unsafe-eval' *.jianshu.com *.jianshu.io api.geetest.com static.geetest.com dn-staticdown.qbox.me zz.bdstatic.com *.google-analytics.com hm.baidu.com push.zhanzhang.baidu.com res.wx.qq.com qzonestyle.gtimg.cn as.alipayobjects.com ;style-src 'self' 'unsafe-inline' *.jianshu.com *.jianshu.io api.geetest.com static.geetest.com ;
ETag: W/"4d22fb2fcef7cdb3f874a6b4960ff2ae"
Cache-Control: max-age=0, private, must-revalidate
Set-Cookie: locale=zh-CN; path=/
Set-Cookie: _m7e_session=708ecf714930ebc19da67ae3141bd6c0; path=/; expires=Sun, 20 May 2018 09:19:36 -0000; secure; HttpOnly
X-Request-Id: c61a268c-896f-4e03-afbe-2547db04943d
X-Runtime: 0.137573
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=31536000; includeSubDomains; preload
Content-Encoding: gzip
X-Via: 1.1 PSfjfzdx2wn96:6 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0), 1.1 jsyz89:1 (Cdn Cache Server V2.0)
Connection: keep-alive
X-Dscp-Value: 0

主要包括:

  • 状态行:HTTP 协议、HTTP 协议版本、状态码
  • 服务端信息
  • 消息体

所以关于设计 restful api 的主体部分包括这些:

  • HTTP 方法:GET、POST、PUT、DELETE
  • HTTP Request:URI 路径、路径参数、请求参数
  • HTTP Response:状态码(2XX、3XX、4XX、5XX)、消息体(body)

鉴于上面的知识点,我们如果使用内置的golang 包,处理 http 信息会这么做:

func Downloader(url string) ([]byte, error) {
    var (
        req *http.Request
        err error
    )
    if req, err = http.NewRequest("GET", url, nil); err != nil {
        return nil, ErrorHttpRequest
    }

    client := http.DefaultClient
    req.Header.Add("User-Agent", "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/66.0.3359.139 Safari/537.36")
    var (
        resp *http.Response
    )
    if resp, err = client.Do(req); err != nil {
        return nil, ErrorHttpResponse
    }

    defer resp.Body.Close()

    return ioutil.ReadAll(resp.Body)
}

查看下源代码 net/http 库中的 http.Request 和 http.Response 都有些什么?

type Request struct {
    // Method specifies the HTTP method (GET, POST, PUT, etc.).
    // For client requests an empty string means GET.
    Method string

    // URL specifies either the URI being requested (for server
    // requests) or the URL to access (for client requests).
    //
    // For server requests the URL is parsed from the URI
    // supplied on the Request-Line as stored in RequestURI.  For
    // most requests, fields other than Path and RawQuery will be
    // empty. (See RFC 2616, Section 5.1.2)
    //
    // For client requests, the URL's Host specifies the server to
    // connect to, while the Request's Host field optionally
    // specifies the Host header value to send in the HTTP
    // request.
    URL *url.URL

    // The protocol version for incoming server requests.
    //
    // For client requests these fields are ignored. The HTTP
    // client code always uses either HTTP/1.1 or HTTP/2.
    // See the docs on Transport for details.
    Proto      string // "HTTP/1.0"
    ProtoMajor int    // 1
    ProtoMinor int    // 0

    // Header contains the request header fields either received
    // by the server or to be sent by the client.
    //
    // If a server received a request with header lines,
    //
    //  Host: example.com
    //  accept-encoding: gzip, deflate
    //  Accept-Language: en-us
    //  fOO: Bar
    //  foo: two
    //
    // then
    //
    //  Header = map[string][]string{
    //      "Accept-Encoding": {"gzip, deflate"},
    //      "Accept-Language": {"en-us"},
    //      "Foo": {"Bar", "two"},
    //  }
    //
    // For incoming requests, the Host header is promoted to the
    // Request.Host field and removed from the Header map.
    //
    // HTTP defines that header names are case-insensitive. The
    // request parser implements this by using CanonicalHeaderKey,
    // making the first character and any characters following a
    // hyphen uppercase and the rest lowercase.
    //
    // For client requests, certain headers such as Content-Length
    // and Connection are automatically written when needed and
    // values in Header may be ignored. See the documentation
    // for the Request.Write method.
    Header Header

    // Body is the request's body.
    //
    // For client requests a nil body means the request has no
    // body, such as a GET request. The HTTP Client's Transport
    // is responsible for calling the Close method.
    //
    // For server requests the Request Body is always non-nil
    // but will return EOF immediately when no body is present.
    // The Server will close the request body. The ServeHTTP
    // Handler does not need to.
    Body io.ReadCloser

    // GetBody defines an optional func to return a new copy of
    // Body. It is used for client requests when a redirect requires
    // reading the body more than once. Use of GetBody still
    // requires setting Body.
    //
    // For server requests it is unused.
    GetBody func() (io.ReadCloser, error)

    // ContentLength records the length of the associated content.
    // The value -1 indicates that the length is unknown.
    // Values >= 0 indicate that the given number of bytes may
    // be read from Body.
    // For client requests, a value of 0 with a non-nil Body is
    // also treated as unknown.
    ContentLength int64

    // TransferEncoding lists the transfer encodings from outermost to
    // innermost. An empty list denotes the "identity" encoding.
    // TransferEncoding can usually be ignored; chunked encoding is
    // automatically added and removed as necessary when sending and
    // receiving requests.
    TransferEncoding []string

    // Close indicates whether to close the connection after
    // replying to this request (for servers) or after sending this
    // request and reading its response (for clients).
    //
    // For server requests, the HTTP server handles this automatically
    // and this field is not needed by Handlers.
    //
    // For client requests, setting this field prevents re-use of
    // TCP connections between requests to the same hosts, as if
    // Transport.DisableKeepAlives were set.
    Close bool

    // For server requests Host specifies the host on which the
    // URL is sought. Per RFC 2616, this is either the value of
    // the "Host" header or the host name given in the URL itself.
    // It may be of the form "host:port". For international domain
    // names, Host may be in Punycode or Unicode form. Use
    // golang.org/x/net/idna to convert it to either format if
    // needed.
    //
    // For client requests Host optionally overrides the Host
    // header to send. If empty, the Request.Write method uses
    // the value of URL.Host. Host may contain an international
    // domain name.
    Host string

    // Form contains the parsed form data, including both the URL
    // field's query parameters and the POST or PUT form data.
    // This field is only available after ParseForm is called.
    // The HTTP client ignores Form and uses Body instead.
    Form url.Values

    // PostForm contains the parsed form data from POST, PATCH,
    // or PUT body parameters.
    //
    // This field is only available after ParseForm is called.
    // The HTTP client ignores PostForm and uses Body instead.
    PostForm url.Values

    // MultipartForm is the parsed multipart form, including file uploads.
    // This field is only available after ParseMultipartForm is called.
    // The HTTP client ignores MultipartForm and uses Body instead.
    MultipartForm *multipart.Form

    // Trailer specifies additional headers that are sent after the request
    // body.
    //
    // For server requests the Trailer map initially contains only the
    // trailer keys, with nil values. (The client declares which trailers it
    // will later send.)  While the handler is reading from Body, it must
    // not reference Trailer. After reading from Body returns EOF, Trailer
    // can be read again and will contain non-nil values, if they were sent
    // by the client.
    //
    // For client requests Trailer must be initialized to a map containing
    // the trailer keys to later send. The values may be nil or their final
    // values. The ContentLength must be 0 or -1, to send a chunked request.
    // After the HTTP request is sent the map values can be updated while
    // the request body is read. Once the body returns EOF, the caller must
    // not mutate Trailer.
    //
    // Few HTTP clients, servers, or proxies support HTTP trailers.
    Trailer Header

    // RemoteAddr allows HTTP servers and other software to record
    // the network address that sent the request, usually for
    // logging. This field is not filled in by ReadRequest and
    // has no defined format. The HTTP server in this package
    // sets RemoteAddr to an "IP:port" address before invoking a
    // handler.
    // This field is ignored by the HTTP client.
    RemoteAddr string

    // RequestURI is the unmodified Request-URI of the
    // Request-Line (RFC 2616, Section 5.1) as sent by the client
    // to a server. Usually the URL field should be used instead.
    // It is an error to set this field in an HTTP client request.
    RequestURI string

    // TLS allows HTTP servers and other software to record
    // information about the TLS connection on which the request
    // was received. This field is not filled in by ReadRequest.
    // The HTTP server in this package sets the field for
    // TLS-enabled connections before invoking a handler;
    // otherwise it leaves the field nil.
    // This field is ignored by the HTTP client.
    TLS *tls.ConnectionState

    // Cancel is an optional channel whose closure indicates that the client
    // request should be regarded as canceled. Not all implementations of
    // RoundTripper may support Cancel.
    //
    // For server requests, this field is not applicable.
    //
    // Deprecated: Use the Context and WithContext methods
    // instead. If a Request's Cancel field and context are both
    // set, it is undefined whether Cancel is respected.
    Cancel <-chan struct{}

    // Response is the redirect response which caused this request
    // to be created. This field is only populated during client
    // redirects.
    Response *Response

    // ctx is either the client or server context. It should only
    // be modified via copying the whole Request using WithContext.
    // It is unexported to prevent people from using Context wrong
    // and mutating the contexts held by callers of the same request.
    ctx context.Context
}
type Response struct {
    Status     string // e.g. "200 OK"
    StatusCode int    // e.g. 200
    Proto      string // e.g. "HTTP/1.0"
    ProtoMajor int    // e.g. 1
    ProtoMinor int    // e.g. 0

    // Header maps header keys to values. If the response had multiple
    // headers with the same key, they may be concatenated, with comma
    // delimiters.  (Section 4.2 of RFC 2616 requires that multiple headers
    // be semantically equivalent to a comma-delimited sequence.) Values
    // duplicated by other fields in this struct (e.g., ContentLength) are
    // omitted from Header.
    //
    // Keys in the map are canonicalized (see CanonicalHeaderKey).
    Header Header

    // Body represents the response body.
    //
    // The http Client and Transport guarantee that Body is always
    // non-nil, even on responses without a body or responses with
    // a zero-length body. It is the caller's responsibility to
    // close Body. The default HTTP client's Transport does not
    // attempt to reuse HTTP/1.0 or HTTP/1.1 TCP connections
    // ("keep-alive") unless the Body is read to completion and is
    // closed.
    //
    // The Body is automatically dechunked if the server replied
    // with a "chunked" Transfer-Encoding.
    Body io.ReadCloser

    // ContentLength records the length of the associated content. The
    // value -1 indicates that the length is unknown. Unless Request.Method
    // is "HEAD", values >= 0 indicate that the given number of bytes may
    // be read from Body.
    ContentLength int64

    // Contains transfer encodings from outer-most to inner-most. Value is
    // nil, means that "identity" encoding is used.
    TransferEncoding []string

    // Close records whether the header directed that the connection be
    // closed after reading Body. The value is advice for clients: neither
    // ReadResponse nor Response.Write ever closes a connection.
    Close bool

    // Uncompressed reports whether the response was sent compressed but
    // was decompressed by the http package. When true, reading from
    // Body yields the uncompressed content instead of the compressed
    // content actually set from the server, ContentLength is set to -1,
    // and the "Content-Length" and "Content-Encoding" fields are deleted
    // from the responseHeader. To get the original response from
    // the server, set Transport.DisableCompression to true.
    Uncompressed bool

    // Trailer maps trailer keys to values in the same
    // format as Header.
    //
    // The Trailer initially contains only nil values, one for
    // each key specified in the server's "Trailer" header
    // value. Those values are not added to Header.
    //
    // Trailer must not be accessed concurrently with Read calls
    // on the Body.
    //
    // After Body.Read has returned io.EOF, Trailer will contain
    // any trailer values sent by the server.
    Trailer Header

    // Request is the request that was sent to obtain this Response.
    // Request's Body is nil (having already been consumed).
    // This is only populated for Client requests.
    Request *Request

    // TLS contains information about the TLS connection on which the
    // response was received. It is nil for unencrypted responses.
    // The pointer is shared between responses and should not be
    // modified.
    TLS *tls.ConnectionState
}

可以看出这两个结构体内存在着我们之前分析的那些点。

如果只使用内置的 net/http 的包如何启动一个web 服务?

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "net/http"
)

func Say(resp http.ResponseWriter, req *http.Request) {
    req.ParseForm()
    fmt.Println(req.URL.Host, "-", req.URL.Path, "-", req.Form)
    fmt.Fprintf(resp, "hello world")
}

func main() {
    http.HandleFunc("/user/hello", Say)
    http.ListenAndServe(":8080", nil)
}

访问:localhost:8080/user/hello 返回响应值:"hello world"

上文中:URL、和响应值response,我们在代码中进行了处理。同样的我们访问真实的网址, 比如 https://www.baidu.com 则是百度的服务器端代码进行了处理。

3. 抄和使用 example

上文中大概知道了构建 restful api 相关的一些 http 协议的知识, 和内置的库 net/http 的基本使用方法。

但别忘了我们的主题是:阅读 go-restful 的源代码。

首先,我们应该根据官方文档学会基本的使用:

package main

import (
    "fmt"
    "log"
    "net/http"

    "github.com/emicklei/go-restful"
)



type User struct {
    Name string
    Age  string
    ID   []int
}

type UserResource struct {
    // normally one would use DAO (data access object)
    users map[string]User
}

// WebService creates a new service that can handle REST requests for User resources.
func (u UserResource) WebService() *restful.WebService {
    ws := new(restful.WebService)
    ws.
        Path("/users").
        Consumes(restful.MIME_XML, restful.MIME_JSON).
        Produces(restful.MIME_JSON, restful.MIME_XML) // you can specify this per route as well

    ws.Route(ws.GET("/").To(u.findAllUsers).
        // docs
        Doc("get all users").
        Writes([]User{}).
        Returns(200, "OK", []User{}))

    ws.Route(ws.GET("/{user-id}").To(u.findUser).
        // docs
        Doc("get a user").
        Param(ws.PathParameter("user-id", "identifier of the user").DataType("integer").DefaultValue("1")).
        Writes(User{}). // on the response
        Returns(200, "OK", User{}).
        Returns(404, "Not Found", nil))

    return ws
}

// GET http://localhost:8080/users
//
func (u UserResource) findAllUsers(request *restful.Request, response *restful.Response) {
    list := []User{}
    for _, each := range u.users {
        list = append(list, each)
    }
    response.WriteEntity(list)
}

func (u UserResource) findUser(request *restful.Request, response *restful.Response) {
    id := request.PathParameter("user-id")
    usr := u.users[id]
    if len(usr.ID) == 0 {
        response.WriteErrorString(http.StatusNotFound, "User could not be found.")
    } else {
        response.WriteEntity(usr)
    }
}

func main() {
    type APIServer struct {
        Container *restful.Container
    }
    u := UserResource{map[string]User{}}
    u.users["xiewei"] = User{
        Name: "xiewei",
        Age:  "20",
        ID:   []int{1, 2, 3, 4},
    }
    apiServer := &APIServer{
        Container: restful.DefaultContainer.Add(u.WebService()),
    }

    log.Printf("start listening on localhost:9990")
    log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":9990", apiServer.Container))
}

访问:localhost:9990/users

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Date: Sun, 20 May 2018 04:21:29 GMT
Content-Length: 92

[
  {
   "Name": "xiewei",
   "Age": "20",
   "ID": [
    1,
    2,
    3,
    4
   ]
  }
 ]

访问:localhost:9990/users/xiewei

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Date: Sun, 20 May 2018 04:21:29 GMT
Content-Length: 92

[
  {
   "Name": "xiewei",
   "Age": "20",
   "ID": [
    1,
    2,
    3,
    4
   ]
  }
 ]

访问:localhost:9990/users/xiewei2

HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found
Date: Sun, 20 May 2018 04:22:59 GMT
Content-Length: 24
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8

User could not be found.

通过这个简单的例子,我们大概能够使用 go-restful 了。

无外乎还是操作:http.Request、http.Response, 上述例子的核心是:findAllUsersfindUser 这个两个函数,具体的返回值、状态码什么的都是由这两个函数定义。其他的都是一些路由的定义、定义生产者和消费者格式、启动指定端口的web 服务。

4. 梳理流程

restful-flow.png

1. 启动并监控指定端口的 http 服务

func ListenAndServe(addr string, handler Handler) error {
    server := &Server{Addr: addr, Handler: handler}
    return server.ListenAndServe()
}

能看出函数的入口是:Handler 接口

type Handler interface {
    ServeHTTP(ResponseWriter, *Request)
}

httpServer 包含 container .

log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":9990", apiServer.Container))

一个 Container 包含多个 WebService

type Container struct {
    webServicesLock        sync.RWMutex
    webServices            []*WebService
    ServeMux               *http.ServeMux
    isRegisteredOnRoot     bool
    containerFilters       []FilterFunction
    doNotRecover           bool // default is true
    recoverHandleFunc      RecoverHandleFunction
    serviceErrorHandleFunc ServiceErrorHandleFunction
    router                 RouteSelector // default is a CurlyRouter (RouterJSR311 is a slower alternative)
    contentEncodingEnabled bool          // default is false
}

container 实现的了Handler 接口

func (c *Container) ServeHTTP(httpwriter http.ResponseWriter, httpRequest *http.Request) {
    c.ServeMux.ServeHTTP(httpwriter, httpRequest)
}

一个 webservice 包含多个Route

type WebService struct {
    rootPath       string
    pathExpr       *pathExpression // cached compilation of rootPath as RegExp
    routes         []Route
    produces       []string
    consumes       []string
    pathParameters []*Parameter
    filters        []FilterFunction
    documentation  string
    apiVersion     string

    typeNameHandleFunc TypeNameHandleFunction

    dynamicRoutes bool

    // protects 'routes' if dynamic routes are enabled
    routesLock sync.RWMutex
}

一个 Route 包含HTTP 协议协议相关的HTTP Request 、HTTP Reponse 、方法等处理

type Route struct {
    Method   string
    Produces []string
    Consumes []string
    Path     string // webservice root path + described path
    Function RouteFunction
    Filters  []FilterFunction
    If       []RouteSelectionConditionFunction

    // cached values for dispatching
    relativePath string
    pathParts    []string
    pathExpr     *pathExpression // cached compilation of relativePath as RegExp

    // documentation
    Doc                     string
    Notes                   string
    Operation               string
    ParameterDocs           []*Parameter
    ResponseErrors          map[int]ResponseError
    ReadSample, WriteSample interface{} // structs that model an example request or response payload

    // Extra information used to store custom information about the route.
    Metadata map[string]interface{}

    // marks a route as deprecated
    Deprecated bool
}

具体的处理函数是:RouteFunction

type RouteFunction func(*Request, *Response)

再回过来看一下,我们的代码是怎么处理的:

  • 启动http 服务,指定端口并监听:需要传入端口和Handler 接口
log.Fatal(http.ListenAndServe(":9990", apiServer.Container))
  • 定义一个 container ,container 类实现了Handler 接口
    apiServer := &APIServer{
        Container: restful.DefaultContainer.Add(u.WebService()),
    }
  • container 内需要定义一个或者多个 webservice, 内含具体的Route 处理函数 RouteFunction
func (u UserResource) WebService() *restful.WebService {
    ws := new(restful.WebService)
    ws.
        Path("/users").
        Consumes(restful.MIME_XML, restful.MIME_JSON).
        Produces(restful.MIME_JSON, restful.MIME_XML) // you can specify this per route as well

    ws.Route(ws.GET("/").To(u.findAllUsers).
        // docs
        Doc("get all users").
        Writes([]User{}).
        Returns(200, "OK", []User{}))

    ws.Route(ws.GET("/{user-id}").To(u.findUser).
        // docs
        Doc("get a user").
        Param(ws.PathParameter("user-id", "identifier of the user").DataType("integer").DefaultValue("1")).
        Writes(User{}). // on the response
        Returns(200, "OK", User{}).
        Returns(404, "Not Found", nil))

    return ws
}

好,上面的大致处理流程我们已经梳理清楚。

5. 借鉴使用

  • 如何抽象出的客观实体:比如Route、Webservice、Container
  • 如何对Router、WebService、Container 定义方法
  • 如何对项目进行组织。
  • 方法如何进行的复用

内置库内存在很多的接口,对接口的实现,不断的对内置库的扩展,有可能就重新发明了一个热门的轮子。

go-restful 库便是对内置库 net/http 的扩展。

总结: 阅读源代码首先你需要明确解决的问题是什么,其次你会使用该项目的Demo 或者多个示例,然后你需要根据源代码梳理源代码流程,最后由抄的过程转变为借鉴使用的过程。

再会,希望对你有所启发,我是谢伟。

本文参与腾讯云自媒体分享计划,欢迎正在阅读的你也加入,一起分享。

发表于

我来说两句

0 条评论
登录 后参与评论

相关文章

来自专栏ml

unbuntu系统( PC机 )中安装360wifi步骤

少说废话,每一步都经过验证:   1.  首先查看一下当前使用的linux版本: gxjun@gxjun:~$ uname -r 4.8.0-59-generi...

3483
来自专栏草根专栏

从头编写 asp.net core 2.0 web api 基础框架 (3)

Github源码地址:https://github.com/solenovex/Building-asp.net-core-2-web-api-starter-...

4917
来自专栏图像识别与深度学习

Bluetooth4_3运行流程(连接发射器SN00000009)

2986
来自专栏JackieZheng

Spring实战——XML和JavaConfig的混合配置

前言 看了园龄已经两年多了,再不能写完内容直接点击发布,留下一片密密麻麻的文字让别人看的头昏脑涨。所以现在每次写完主要内容后,还需要对于格式稍稍调整下。那么有没...

3176
来自专栏游戏杂谈

xcode中嵌入framework(接入快用最新SDK遇到的问题)

但xcode设置中并没有找到Embed Frameworks这个选项,使用以下方式添加

1254
来自专栏Jerry的SAP技术分享

通过一个实际例子理解Kubernetes里pod的自动scale - 水平自动伸缩

kubectl scale命令用于程序在负载加重或缩小时进行pod扩容或缩小,我们通过一些实际例子来观察scale命令到底能达到什么效果。

1393
来自专栏木制robot技术杂谈

Hexo搭建个人博客(三)—— Hexo博客的美化

通过前两节的学习,我们已经搭建好自己的博客,就像盖房子一样要对内部进行装修,也就是对博客进行美化。 ---- 安装Hexo博客主题 Hexo博客可以安装不同的...

1.4K9
来自专栏康怀帅的专栏

Nginx 编译安装

本文介绍了手动编译安装 nginx 的具体步骤。 安装依赖包 RedHat 系 $ yum install -y gcc gcc-c++ pcre-devel ...

3684
来自专栏安恒网络空间安全讲武堂

赛前福利①最新2018HITB国际赛writeup

FIRST 距离“西湖论剑杯”全国大学生网络空间安全技能大赛只有10天啦! 要拿大奖、赢offer,那必须得来点赛前练习定定心啊~这不,讲武堂就拿到了2018H...

4645
来自专栏恰童鞋骚年

.NET Core微服务之基于Ocelot+IdentityServer实现统一验证与授权

  这里,假设我们有两个客户端(一个Web网站,一个移动App),他们要使用系统,需要通过API网关(这里API网关始终作为客户端的统一入口)先向Identit...

3644

扫码关注云+社区

领取腾讯云代金券