python3.6+django2.0 一小时学会开发一套学员管理系统demo

1.在pycharm中新建project demo1 添加app01 点击create按钮完成新建

2.在demo项目目录下新建目录static,并在settings.py中追加代码:

STATICFILES_DIRS=(os.path.join(BASE_DIR,  'static'),)

3.在setting.py中添加模板路径:

TEMPLATES = [
    {
        'BACKEND': '...',
        'DIRS': [os.path.join(BASE_DIR,  'templates'),],
        'APP_DIRS': ...,
        'OPTIONS': {
            'context_processors': [
                ...
            ],
        },
    },
]

4.学员管理系统数据库设计:

在app01/model.py目录下建立 班级、老师、学生 、老师与班级关联表  四张表:

from django.db import models

# Create your models here.


class Classes(models.Model):
    '''
    班级表
    '''
    title=models.CharField(max_length=32)
    a=models.ManyToManyField('Teachers')


class Teachers(models.Model):
    '''
    老师表
    '''
    name=models.CharField(max_length=32)


class Students(models.Model):
    username=models.CharField(max_length=32)
    age=models.IntegerField()
    gender=models.BooleanField()
    cs=models.ForeignKey(Classes,on_delete=models.CASCADE)

在终端Terminal 项目目录下执行数据表更新命令:

python manage.py makemigrations
python manage.py migrate

至此生成了四张数据表,可以在pycharm中,点开右上角的Database面板,然后将项目中templates目录下边的db.sqlite3鼠标拖拽到Database面板下,对新创建的数据表进行查看。

5.学员管理系统之班级管理:

为了方便分别操作班级、老师、学生相关的业务,将app01目录下的views.py 删掉,在app01目录下新建目录views,并在views目录下 新建classes.py teachers.py students.py。

1.在classes.py 中写 get_classes add_classes del_classes edit_classes四个函数,完成对 班级数据 的增删改查:

from django.shortcuts import render,redirect
from app01 import models


def get_classes(request):
    cls_list = models.Classes.objects.all()
    return render(request,'get_classes.html',{'cls_list':cls_list})

def add_classes(request):
    if request.method=='GET':
        return render(request,'add_classes.html')
    elif request.method=='POST':
        title=request.POST.get('title','')
        models.Classes.objects.create(title=title)
        return redirect('/classes.html')

def del_classes(request):
    nid=request.GET.get('nid','')
    models.Classes.objects.filter(id=nid).delete()
    return redirect('/classes.html')

def edit_classes(request):
    if request.method=="GET":
        nid = request.GET.get('nid', '')
        obj=models.Classes.objects.get(id=nid)
        return render(request,'edit_classes.html',{'obj':obj})
    elif request.method=="POST":
        nid=request.POST.get('nid','')
        title=request.POST.get('xxoo','')
        models.Classes.objects.filter(id=nid).update(title=title)
        return redirect('/classes.html')

2.在urls.py 中配置url路由:  

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01.views import classes,students,teachers

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('classes.html', classes.get_classes),
    path('add_classes.html', classes.add_classes),
    path('del_classes.html', classes.del_classes),
    path('edit_classes.html', classes.edit_classes),
    # path('teachers.html', teachers.get_teachers),
    # path('students.html', students.get_studernts),

]

3.在template目录下建立所需的html页面文件:

get_classes.html

DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <style>
        tr td{ border:1px solid #000;text-align:center;}
    </style>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<div>
    <table width="300">
        <thead>
            <tr>
                <th>ID</th> <th>名称</th> <th>操作</th>
            </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            {% for row in cls_list %}
            <tr>
                <td>{{ row.id }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.title }}</td>
                <td><a href="/del_classes.html?nid={{ row.id }}">删除</a>
                    |<a href="/edit_classes.html?nid={{ row.id }}">编辑</a>
                </td>
            </tr>
            {% endfor %}
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

<div><a href="/add_classes.html">添加</a> </div>
</body>
</html>

add_classes.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="/add_classes.html" method="post">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <input type="text" name="title">
    <input type="submit" value="提交">
</form>
</body>
</html>

edit_classes.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form method="post" action="/edit_classes.html">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <input type="hidden" name="nid" value="{{ obj.id }}">
    <input type="text" name="xxoo" value="{{ obj.title }}">
    <input type="submit" value="提交">
</form>

</body>
</html>

6.学员管理系统之学员管理:

1.在students.py 中写 get_students add_students del_students edit_students 四个函数,完成对 学生数据 的增删改查:

from django.shortcuts import render,redirect
from app01 import models


def get_students(request):
    stu_list=models.Students.objects.all()
    return render(request,'get_students.html',{'stu_list':stu_list})


def add_students(request):
    if request.method=='GET':
        cs_list=models.Classes.objects.all()
        return render(request,'add_students.html',{'cs_list':cs_list})
    elif request.method=='POST':
        u=request.POST.get('username','')
        a=request.POST.get('age','')
        g=request.POST.get('gender','')
        c=request.POST.get('cs','')
        models.Students.objects.create(
            username=u,
            age=a,
            gender=g,
            cs_id=c
        )
        return redirect('/students.html')


def del_students(request):
    nid = request.GET.get('nid', '')
    models.Students.objects.filter(id=nid).delete()
    return redirect('/students.html')


def edit_students(request):
    if request.method=="GET":
        nid = request.GET.get('nid', '')
        obj=models.Students.objects.get(id=nid)
        cs_list = models.Classes.objects.all()
        return render(request,'edit_students.html',{'obj':obj,'cs_list':cs_list})
    elif request.method=="POST":
        nid=request.POST.get('nid','')
        u = request.POST.get('username', '')
        a = request.POST.get('age', '')
        g = request.POST.get('gender', '')
        c = request.POST.get('cs', '')
        models.Students.objects.filter(id=nid).update(
            username=u,
            age=a,
            gender=g,
            cs_id=c)
        return redirect('/students.html')

2.在urls.py 中配置url路由: 

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01.views import classes,students,teachers

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),

    path('classes.html', classes.get_classes),
    path('add_classes.html', classes.add_classes),
    path('del_classes.html', classes.del_classes),
    path('edit_classes.html', classes.edit_classes),

    path('students.html', students.get_students),
    path('add_students.html', students.add_students),
    path('del_students.html', students.del_students),
    path('edit_students.html', students.edit_students),
    # path('teachers.html', teachers.get_teachers),
]

3.在template目录下建立所需的html页面文件:

get_students.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <style>
        tr td{ border:1px solid #000;text-align:center;}
    </style>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<div>
    <table>
        <thead>
            <tr>
                <th>ID</th>
                <th>姓名</th>
                <th>年龄</th>
                <th>性别</th>
                <th>班级</th>
                <th>操作</th>
            </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            {% for row in stu_list %}
            <tr>
                <td>{{ row.id }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.username }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.age }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.gender }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.cs.title }}</td>
                <td><a href="/del_students.html?nid={{ row.id }}">删除</a>
                    |<a href="/edit_students.html?nid={{ row.id }}">编辑</a>
                </td>
            </tr>
            {% endfor %}
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

<div><a href="/add_students.html">添加</a> </div>
</body>
</html>

add_students

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>添加用户</h1>
<form method="post" action="/add_students.html">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <p><input type="text" name="username" placeholder="用户名"></p>
    <p><input type="text" name="age" placeholder="年龄"></p>
    <p>
        男<input type="radio" name="gender" value="1">
        女<input type="radio" name="gender" value="0">
    </p>
    <p>
        <select name="cs">
            {% for row in cs_list %}
            <option value="{{ row.id }}">{{ row.title }}</option>
            {% endfor %}
        </select>
    </p>
    <p><input type="submit" value="提交"></p>
</form>
</body>
</html>

edit_students.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<h1>编辑用户</h1>
<form method="post" action="/edit_students.html">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <input type="hidden"  name="nid" value="{{ obj.id }}">
    <p><input type="text" name="username" placeholder="用户名"></p>
    <p><input type="text" name="age" placeholder="年龄"></p>
    <p>
        男<input type="radio" name="gender" value="1">
        女<input type="radio" name="gender" value="0">
    </p>
    <p>
        <select name="cs">
            {% for row in cs_list %}
            <option value="{{ row.id }}">{{ row.title }}</option>
            {% endfor %}
        </select>
    </p>
    <p><input type="submit" value="提交"></p>
</form>
</body>
</html>

7.学员管理系统之给班级分配老师:

在teachers数据表中增加一些老师信息:

  在pycharm右上角的Database打开面板,然后将template目录下边的db.splte3鼠标拖入到Database面板中,打开db==》app01_teachers表

  点击“+”,然后填入老师信息,然后点击有“DB”标志的向上箭头,进行数据保存。

1.在classes.py中增加set_teachers函数

def set_teachers(request):
    if request.method=='GET':
        nid=request.GET.get('nid','')
        cls_obj=models.Classes.objects.get(id=nid)
        cls_teacher_list=cls_obj.a.all()
        all_teacher_list=models.Teachers.objects.all()
        return render(request,'set_teachers.html',{
            'cls_teacher_list':cls_teacher_list,
            'all_teacher_list':all_teacher_list,
            'nid':nid,
        })
    elif request.method=='POST':
        nid = request.POST.get('nid', '')
        ids_str=request.POST.getlist('teacher_id','')
        ids_int=[]
        for i in ids_str:
            i=int(i)
            ids_int.append(i)
        obj=models.Classes.objects.get(id=nid)
        obj.a.set(ids_int)
        return redirect('/classes.html')

2.在urls.py 中配置url路由: 

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01.views import classes,students,teachers

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),

    path('classes.html', classes.get_classes),
    path('add_classes.html', classes.add_classes),
    path('del_classes.html', classes.del_classes),
    path('edit_classes.html', classes.edit_classes),

    path('students.html', students.get_students),
    path('add_students.html', students.add_students),
    path('del_students.html', students.del_students),
    path('edit_students.html', students.edit_students),

    path('set_teachers.html', classes.set_teachers),
]

3.在template目录下建立所需的html页面文件:

set_teachers.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
<form action="/set_teachers.html" method="post">
    <input type="hidden" name="nid" value="{{ nid }}">
    {% csrf_token %}
    <select multiple size="10" name="teacher_id">

        {% for item in all_teacher_list %}
            {% if item in cls_teacher_list %}
            <option value="{{ item.id }}" selected="selected">{{ item.name }}</option>
            {% else %}
            <option value="{{ item.id }}">{{ item.name }}</option>
            {% endif %}
        {% endfor %}
    </select>
    <input type="submit" value="提交">
</form>
</body>
</html>

对get_classes.html进行增添修改为:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<div>
    <table border="1">
        <thead>
            <tr>
                <th>ID</th> <th>名称</th> <th>任课老师</th> <th>操作</th>
            </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            {% for row in cls_list %}
            <tr>
                <td>{{ row.id }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.title }}</td>
                <td>
                    {% for item in row.a.all %}
                        <span>{{ item.name }}</span>
                        {% endfor %}
                </td>
                <td><a href="/del_classes.html?nid={{ row.id }}">删除</a>
                    |<a href="/edit_classes.html?nid={{ row.id }}">编辑</a>
                    |<a href="/set_teachers.html?nid={{ row.id }}">分配老师</a>
                </td>
            </tr>
            {% endfor %}
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

<div><a href="/add_classes.html">添加</a> </div>
</body>
</html>

 8.初识Ajax

Ajax是异步传输方式,偷偷的向后台发请求,不引起页面刷新,下面通过一个小例子来认识Ajax这种数据传输方式。

首先下载jQuery导入项目下的static目录下

1.在app01/Views目录下新建ajax.py

from django.shortcuts import render,redirect,HttpResponse


def ajax1(request):
    return render(request,'ajax1.html')


def ajax2(request):
    u=request.GET.get('username')
    p=request.GET.get('password')
    return HttpResponse('我愿意')

2.在urls.py中配置相关路由

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01.views import classes,students,teachers,ajax

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),

    path('classes.html', classes.get_classes),
    path('add_classes.html', classes.add_classes),
    path('del_classes.html', classes.del_classes),
    path('edit_classes.html', classes.edit_classes),

    path('students.html', students.get_students),
    path('add_students.html', students.add_students),
    path('del_students.html', students.del_students),
    path('edit_students.html', students.edit_students),

    path('set_teachers.html', classes.set_teachers),

    path('ajax1.html', ajax.ajax1),
    path('ajax2.html', ajax.ajax2),
]

 3.在template目录下新建ajax1.html

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
    <style>
        .btn{
            display: inline-block;
            padding: 5px 15px;
            background-color: coral;
            color: white;
            cursor: pointer;
        }
    </style>
</head>
<body>
<div>
    <input placeholder="用户名" type="text" id="username">
    <input placeholder="密码" type="password" id="password">
    <div class="btn" onclick="submitForm();">提交</div>
</div>
<script src="/static/jquery-3.3.1.js"></script>
<script>
    function submitForm() {
        var u=$('#username').val();
        var p=$('#password').val();
        $.ajax({
            url:'ajax2.html',
            type:'GET',
            data:{username:u,password:p},
            success:function (arg) {
                //回调函数 arg是服务器返回的字符串
                console.log(arg)
            }

        })

    }
</script>
</body>


</html>

9.学员管理系统之Ajax删除学员:

1.在ajax.py中增加ajax4函数

from app01 import models


def ajax4(request):
    nid=request.GET.get('nid')
    msg='成功'
    try:
        models.Students.objects.get(id=nid).delete()
    except Exception as e:
        msg=str(e)
    return HttpResponse(msg)

2.在urls.py中配置相关路由

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from app01.views import classes,students,teachers,ajax

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),

    path('classes.html', classes.get_classes),
    path('add_classes.html', classes.add_classes),
    path('del_classes.html', classes.del_classes),
    path('edit_classes.html', classes.edit_classes),

    path('students.html', students.get_students),
    path('add_students.html', students.add_students),
    path('del_students.html', students.del_students),
    path('edit_students.html', students.edit_students),

    path('set_teachers.html', classes.set_teachers),

    path('ajax1.html', ajax.ajax1),
    path('ajax2.html', ajax.ajax2),
    path('ajax4.html', ajax.ajax4),
]

3.对get_students.html进行添加修改:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>

<div>
    <table border="1">
        <thead>
            <tr>
                <th>ID</th>
                <th>姓名</th>
                <th>年龄</th>
                <th>性别</th>
                <th>班级</th>
                <th>操作</th>
            </tr>
        </thead>
        <tbody>
            {% for row in stu_list %}
            <tr nid="{{ row.id }}">
                <td>{{ row.id }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.username }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.age }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.gender }}</td>
                <td>{{ row.cs.title }}</td>
                <td><a href="/del_students.html?nid={{ row.id }}">删除</a>
                    |<a onclick="removeStudent(this);" href="#">Ajax删除</a>
                    |<a href="/edit_students.html?nid={{ row.id }}">编辑</a>
                </td>
            </tr>
            {% endfor %}
        </tbody>
    </table>
</div>

<div><a href="/add_students.html">添加</a> </div>
</body>
<script src="/static/jquery-3.3.1.js"></script>
<script>
    function removeStudent(ths) {
        var nid=$(ths).parent().parent().attr('nid');
        $.ajax({
            url:'/ajax4.html',
            type:'GET',
            data:{nid:nid},
            success:function (arg) {
                if (arg=='成功'){
                    window.location.reload();
                }else{
                    alert(arg);
                }
            }
        })
    }
</script>
</html>

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