专栏首页吴伟祥Tomcat最佳优化方案总结 原

Tomcat最佳优化方案总结 原

一、简介

Tomcat支持三种接收请求的处理方式:BIO、NIO、APR 。

1. BIO由于每个请求都要创建一个线程来处理,线程开销比较大,不能再高并发的场景,性能也是最低的。 2. NIO是一个基于缓冲区、并能提供非阻塞I/O操作的Java API,比传统的bio更好的并发性能。 3. APR(Apache Portable Run-time libraries)简单理解,就是从操作系统级别解决异步IO问题,大幅度的提高服务器的处理和响应性能, 也是Tomcat运行高并发应用的首选模式。 

APR提供的主要功能模块包括:内存分配及内存池、原子操作、文件I/O、锁、内存映射、哈希表、网络I/O、轮询、进程及线程操作等等,全部模块列表可详细参见: http://apr.apache.org/docs/apr/1.5/modules.html。 通过采用APR,Tomcat可以获得高度可扩展性以及优越的性能,并且可以更好的与本地服务器技术集成,从而可以使Tomcat作为一款通用的Web服务器使用,而不仅仅作为轻量级应用服务器。在这种情况下,Java将不再是一门侧重于后端的编程语言,也可以更多的用于成熟的Web服务器平台。

二、安装

1、从http://tomcat.apache.org/download-native.cgi下载Windows二进制版本放到tomcat的bin下

2、更改server.xml

Tomcat启动时,会自动检测系统是否安装了APR,如果已安装,则自动采用APR进行I/O处理(除非已指定Connector的protocol属性为具体的协议类)。

三、官方介绍

可见官方关于APR的介绍:https://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/apr.html

配置Https

四、最终server.xml

1/添加线程池

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
-->
<!-- Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
     define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
     Documentation at /docs/config/server.html
 -->
<!--默认8005,防止多开tomcat端口冲突-->
<Server port="8006" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener" />
  <!-- Security listener. Documentation at /docs/config/listeners.html
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.security.SecurityListener" />
  -->
  <!--APR library loader. Documentation at /docs/apr.html -->
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="on" />
  <!-- Prevent memory leaks due to use of particular java/javax APIs-->
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
  <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />

  <!-- Global JNDI resources
       Documentation at /docs/jndi-resources-howto.html
  -->
  <GlobalNamingResources>
    <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
         UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users
    -->
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
              type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
              description="User database that can be updated and saved"
              factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
              pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
  </GlobalNamingResources>

  <!-- A "Service" is a collection of one or more "Connectors" that share
       a single "Container" Note:  A "Service" is not itself a "Container",
       so you may not define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
       Documentation at /docs/config/service.html
   -->
  <Service name="Catalina">

        <!--The connectors can use a shared executor, you can define one or more named thread pools-->
            <!--
                1、启用线程池:在tomcat中每一个用户请求都是一个线程,所以可以使用线程池提高性能
                参数详情见:https://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/config/http.html
                maxThreads 可以处理的最大并发请求数,默认200
                minSpareThreads 线程的最小数量始终保持运行,默认10
            -->
        <Executor name="tomcatThreadPool" namePrefix="catalina-exec-"
                  maxThreads="800" minSpareThreads="100" />



        <!-- A "Connector" represents an endpoint by which requests are received
             and responses are returned. Documentation at :
             Java HTTP Connector: /docs/config/http.html (blocking & non-blocking)
             Java AJP  Connector: /docs/config/ajp.html
             APR (HTTP/AJP) Connector: /docs/apr.html
             Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080
        -->
        <!--
            acceptCount 所有可能的请求处理线程正在使用时传入连接请求的最大队列长度。队列满时收到的任何请求都将被拒绝。默认值是100。
            acceptorThreadCount 用于接受连接的线程数。在多CPU机器上增加这个值,虽然你永远不会真的需要更多2。另外,有很多非保持活动的连接,你可能也想增加这个值。默认值是 1。
            maxConnections 服务器接受并处理的最大连接数 对于NIO和NIO2,默认值是10000
         -->
        <Connector executor="tomcatThreadPool" port="8080" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
                   connectionTimeout="20000"
                   redirectPort="8443"
                   acceptCount="100"
                   acceptorThreadCount="4"
                   maxConnections="10000"
        />
        <!-- A "Connector" using the shared thread pool-->
        <!--
        <Connector executor="tomcatThreadPool"
                   port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
                   connectionTimeout="20000"
                   redirectPort="8443" />
        -->
        <!-- Define a SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443
             This connector uses the BIO implementation that requires the JSSE
             style configuration. When using the APR/native implementation, the
             OpenSSL style configuration is required as described in the APR/native
             documentation -->
        <!--
        <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11Protocol"
                   maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" scheme="https" secure="true"
                   clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS" />
        -->

        <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 防止多tomcat端口冲突,修改端口-->
        <Connector port="8010" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />


    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host).
         Documentation at /docs/config/engine.html -->

    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="jvm1">
    -->
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">

      <!--For clustering, please take a look at documentation at:
          /docs/cluster-howto.html  (simple how to)
          /docs/config/cluster.html (reference documentation) -->
      <!--
      <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/>
      -->

      <!-- Use the LockOutRealm to prevent attempts to guess user passwords
           via a brute-force attack -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
        <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured in the global JNDI
             resources under the key "UserDatabase".  Any edits
             that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
             available for use by the Realm.  -->
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
               resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
      </Realm>

      <Host name="localhost"  appBase="webapps"
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">

        <!-- SingleSignOn valve, share authentication between web applications
             Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html -->
        <!--
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn" />
        -->

        <!-- Access log processes all example.
             Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html
             Note: The pattern used is equivalent to using pattern="common" -->
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="localhost_access_log" suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />

      </Host>
    </Engine>
  </Service>
</Server>

2/添加apr

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
-->
<!-- Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
     define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
     Documentation at /docs/config/server.html
 -->
<Server port="8006" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener" />
    <!-- Security listener. Documentation at /docs/config/listeners.html
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.security.SecurityListener" />
    -->
    <!--APR library loader. Documentation at /docs/apr.html 1、关闭ssl -->
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="off" />
    <!-- Prevent memory leaks due to use of particular java/javax APIs-->
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />

    <!-- Global JNDI resources
         Documentation at /docs/jndi-resources-howto.html
    -->
    <GlobalNamingResources>
        <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
             UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users
        -->
        <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
                  type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
                  description="User database that can be updated and saved"
                  factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
                  pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
    </GlobalNamingResources>

    <!-- A "Service" is a collection of one or more "Connectors" that share
         a single "Container" Note:  A "Service" is not itself a "Container",
         so you may not define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
         Documentation at /docs/config/service.html
     -->
    <Service name="Catalina">

        <!--The connectors can use a shared executor, you can define one or more named thread pools-->
        <!--
        <Executor name="tomcatThreadPool" namePrefix="catalina-exec-"
            maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="4"/>
        -->


        <!-- A "Connector" represents an endpoint by which requests are received
             and responses are returned. Documentation at :
             Java HTTP Connector: /docs/config/http.html
             Java AJP  Connector: /docs/config/ajp.html
             APR (HTTP/AJP) Connector: /docs/apr.html
             Define a non-SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080  2、更改协议
        -->
        <Connector port="8080" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
                   connectionTimeout="20000"
                   redirectPort="8443" />
        <!-- A "Connector" using the shared thread pool-->
        <!--
        <Connector executor="tomcatThreadPool"
                   port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
                   connectionTimeout="20000"
                   redirectPort="8443" />
        -->
        <!-- Define a SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443
             This connector uses the NIO implementation. The default
             SSLImplementation will depend on the presence of the APR/native
             library and the useOpenSSL attribute of the
             AprLifecycleListener.
             Either JSSE or OpenSSL style configuration may be used regardless of
             the SSLImplementation selected. JSSE style configuration is used below.
        -->
        <!--
        <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
                   maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true">
            <SSLHostConfig>
                <Certificate certificateKeystoreFile="conf/localhost-rsa.jks"
                             type="RSA" />
            </SSLHostConfig>
        </Connector>
        -->
        <!-- Define a SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 with HTTP/2
             This connector uses the APR/native implementation which always uses
             OpenSSL for TLS.
             Either JSSE or OpenSSL style configuration may be used. OpenSSL style
             configuration is used below.
        -->
        <!--
        <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
                   maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" >
            <UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />
            <SSLHostConfig>
                <Certificate certificateKeyFile="conf/localhost-rsa-key.pem"
                             certificateFile="conf/localhost-rsa-cert.pem"
                             certificateChainFile="conf/localhost-rsa-chain.pem"
                             type="RSA" />
            </SSLHostConfig>
        </Connector>
        -->

        <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 -->
        <Connector port="8010" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />


        <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
             every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
             analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
             on to the appropriate Host (virtual host).
             Documentation at /docs/config/engine.html -->

        <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :
        <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="jvm1">
        -->
        <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">

            <!--For clustering, please take a look at documentation at:
                /docs/cluster-howto.html  (simple how to)
                /docs/config/cluster.html (reference documentation) -->
            <!--
            <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/>
            -->

            <!-- Use the LockOutRealm to prevent attempts to guess user passwords
                 via a brute-force attack -->
            <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
                <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured in the global JNDI
                     resources under the key "UserDatabase".  Any edits
                     that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
                     available for use by the Realm.  -->
                <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
                       resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
            </Realm>

            <Host name="localhost"  appBase="webapps"
                  unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">

                <!-- SingleSignOn valve, share authentication between web applications
                     Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html -->
                <!--
                <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn" />
                -->

                <!-- Access log processes all example.
                     Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html
                     Note: The pattern used is equivalent to using pattern="common" -->
                <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
                       prefix="localhost_access_log" suffix=".txt"
                       pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />

            </Host>
        </Engine>
    </Service>
</Server>

2/添加apr和线程池

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!--
  Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
  contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
  this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
  The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
  (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
  the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at

      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

  Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
  distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
  WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
  See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
  limitations under the License.
-->
<!-- Note:  A "Server" is not itself a "Container", so you may not
     define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
     Documentation at /docs/config/server.html
 -->
<!--默认8005,防止多开tomcat端口冲突-->
<Server port="8006" shutdown="SHUTDOWN">
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener" />
    <!-- Security listener. Documentation at /docs/config/listeners.html
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.security.SecurityListener" />
    -->
    <!--APR library loader. Documentation at /docs/apr.html 1、关闭ssl -->
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener" SSLEngine="off" />
    <!-- Prevent memory leaks due to use of particular java/javax APIs-->
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.JreMemoryLeakPreventionListener" />
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.mbeans.GlobalResourcesLifecycleListener" />
    <Listener className="org.apache.catalina.core.ThreadLocalLeakPreventionListener" />

  <!-- Global JNDI resources
       Documentation at /docs/jndi-resources-howto.html
  -->
  <GlobalNamingResources>
    <!-- Editable user database that can also be used by
         UserDatabaseRealm to authenticate users
    -->
    <Resource name="UserDatabase" auth="Container"
              type="org.apache.catalina.UserDatabase"
              description="User database that can be updated and saved"
              factory="org.apache.catalina.users.MemoryUserDatabaseFactory"
              pathname="conf/tomcat-users.xml" />
  </GlobalNamingResources>

  <!-- A "Service" is a collection of one or more "Connectors" that share
       a single "Container" Note:  A "Service" is not itself a "Container",
       so you may not define subcomponents such as "Valves" at this level.
       Documentation at /docs/config/service.html
   -->
  <Service name="Catalina">

        <!--The connectors can use a shared executor, you can define one or more named thread pools-->
            <!--
                2、启用线程池:在tomcat中每一个用户请求都是一个线程,所以可以使用线程池提高性能
                参数详情见:https://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/config/http.html
                maxThreads 可以处理的最大并发请求数,默认200
                minSpareThreads 线程的最小数量始终保持运行,默认10
            -->
        <Executor name="tomcatThreadPool" namePrefix="catalina-exec-"
                  maxThreads="800" minSpareThreads="100" />



        <!-- A "Connector" represents an endpoint by which requests are received
             and responses are returned. Documentation at :
             Java HTTP Connector: /docs/config/http.html (blocking & non-blocking)
             Java AJP  Connector: /docs/config/ajp.html
             APR (HTTP/AJP) Connector: /docs/apr.html
             Define a non-SSL HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8080
        -->
      <!--
           参数详情见:https://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-9.0-doc/config/http.html
           acceptCount 所有可能的请求处理线程正在使用时传入连接请求的最大队列长度。队列满时收到的任何请求都将被拒绝。默认值是100。
           acceptorThreadCount 用于接受连接的线程数。在多CPU机器上增加这个值,虽然你永远不会真的需要更多2。另外,有很多非保持活动的连接,你可能也想增加这个值。默认值是 1。
           maxConnections 服务器接受并处理的最大连接数 对于NIO和NIO2,默认值是10000

           3、更改协议
        -->
        <Connector executor="tomcatThreadPool" port="8080" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
                   connectionTimeout="20000"
                   redirectPort="8443"
                   acceptCount="100"
                   acceptorThreadCount="4"
                   maxConnections="10000"
        />
        <!-- A "Connector" using the shared thread pool-->
        <!--
        <Connector executor="tomcatThreadPool"
                   port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
                   connectionTimeout="20000"
                   redirectPort="8443" />
        -->
        <!-- Define a SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443
             This connector uses the NIO implementation. The default
             SSLImplementation will depend on the presence of the APR/native
             library and the useOpenSSL attribute of the
             AprLifecycleListener.
             Either JSSE or OpenSSL style configuration may be used regardless of
             the SSLImplementation selected. JSSE style configuration is used below.
        -->
        <!--
        <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
                   maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true">
            <SSLHostConfig>
                <Certificate certificateKeystoreFile="conf/localhost-rsa.jks"
                             type="RSA" />
            </SSLHostConfig>
        </Connector>
        -->
        <!-- Define a SSL/TLS HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 with HTTP/2
             This connector uses the APR/native implementation which always uses
             OpenSSL for TLS.
             Either JSSE or OpenSSL style configuration may be used. OpenSSL style
             configuration is used below.
        -->
        <!--
        <Connector port="8443" protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11AprProtocol"
                   maxThreads="150" SSLEnabled="true" >
            <UpgradeProtocol className="org.apache.coyote.http2.Http2Protocol" />
            <SSLHostConfig>
                <Certificate certificateKeyFile="conf/localhost-rsa-key.pem"
                             certificateFile="conf/localhost-rsa-cert.pem"
                             certificateChainFile="conf/localhost-rsa-chain.pem"
                             type="RSA" />
            </SSLHostConfig>
        </Connector>
        -->

        <!-- Define an AJP 1.3 Connector on port 8009 防止多tomcat端口冲突,修改端口-->
        <Connector port="8010" protocol="AJP/1.3" redirectPort="8443" />


    <!-- An Engine represents the entry point (within Catalina) that processes
         every request.  The Engine implementation for Tomcat stand alone
         analyzes the HTTP headers included with the request, and passes them
         on to the appropriate Host (virtual host).
         Documentation at /docs/config/engine.html -->

    <!-- You should set jvmRoute to support load-balancing via AJP ie :
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost" jvmRoute="jvm1">
    -->
    <Engine name="Catalina" defaultHost="localhost">

      <!--For clustering, please take a look at documentation at:
          /docs/cluster-howto.html  (simple how to)
          /docs/config/cluster.html (reference documentation) -->
      <!--
      <Cluster className="org.apache.catalina.ha.tcp.SimpleTcpCluster"/>
      -->

      <!-- Use the LockOutRealm to prevent attempts to guess user passwords
           via a brute-force attack -->
      <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.LockOutRealm">
        <!-- This Realm uses the UserDatabase configured in the global JNDI
             resources under the key "UserDatabase".  Any edits
             that are performed against this UserDatabase are immediately
             available for use by the Realm.  -->
        <Realm className="org.apache.catalina.realm.UserDatabaseRealm"
               resourceName="UserDatabase"/>
      </Realm>

      <Host name="localhost"  appBase="webapps"
            unpackWARs="true" autoDeploy="true">

        <!-- SingleSignOn valve, share authentication between web applications
             Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html -->
        <!--
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.authenticator.SingleSignOn" />
        -->

        <!-- Access log processes all example.
             Documentation at: /docs/config/valve.html
             Note: The pattern used is equivalent to using pattern="common" -->
        <Valve className="org.apache.catalina.valves.AccessLogValve" directory="logs"
               prefix="localhost_access_log" suffix=".txt"
               pattern="%h %l %u %t &quot;%r&quot; %s %b" />

      </Host>
    </Engine>
  </Service>
</Server>

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