如何在CDH6.0中启用Kerberos

1.文档编写目的


在前面的文章中,Fayson介绍了《如何在Redhat7.4安装CDH6.0》,这里我们基于这个环境开始安装Kerberos。关于CDH启用Kerberos的文章,前面Fayson也介绍过《如何在CDH集群启用Kerberos》、《如何在Redhat7.3的CDH5.14中启用Kerberos》、《如何在Redhat7.4的CDH5.15中启用Kerberos》和《如何在CDH6.0.0-beta1中启用Kerberos》,通过本文,我们也可以来看看CDH6启用Kerberos有哪些不一样的地方。

  • 内容概述:

1.如何安装及配置KDC服务

2.如何通过CDH启用Kerberos

3.如何登录Kerberos并访问Hadoop相关服务

4.总结

  • 测试环境:

1.操作系统:Redhat7.4

2.CDH6.0

3.采用root用户进行操作

2.KDC服务安装及配置


本文档中将KDC服务安装在Cloudera Manager Server所在服务器上(KDC服务可根据自己需要安装在其他服务器)

1.在Cloudera Manager服务器上安装KDC服务

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# yum -y install krb5-server krb5-libs krb5-auth-dialog krb5-workstation

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2.修改/etc/krb5.conf配置

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# vim /etc/krb5.conf
# Configuration snippets may be placed in this directory as well
includedir /etc/krb5.conf.d/

[logging]
 default = FILE:/var/log/krb5libs.log
 kdc = FILE:/var/log/krb5kdc.log
 admin_server = FILE:/var/log/kadmind.log

[libdefaults]
 dns_lookup_realm = false
 ticket_lifetime = 24h
 renew_lifetime = 7d
 forwardable = true
 rdns = false
 default_realm = FAYSON.COM
 #default_ccache_name = KEYRING:persistent:%{uid}

[realms]
 FAYSON.COM = {
  kdc = ip-172-31-6-83.ap-southeast-1.compute.internal
  admin_server = ip-172-31-6-83.ap-southeast-1.compute.internal
 }

[domain_realm]
 .ap-southeast-1.compute.internal = FAYSON.COM
 ap-southeast-1.compute.internal = FAYSON.COM

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标红部分为需要修改的信息。

3.修改/var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.acl配置

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# vim /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.acl
*/admin@FAYSON.COM      *

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4.修改/var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kdc.conf配置

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# vim /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kdc.conf
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# cat /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kdc.conf
[kdcdefaults]
 kdc_ports = 88
 kdc_tcp_ports = 88

[realms]
 FAYSON.COM = {
  #master_key_type = aes256-cts
  max_renewable_life= 7d 0h 0m 0s
  acl_file = /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.acl
  dict_file = /usr/share/dict/words
  admin_keytab = /var/kerberos/krb5kdc/kadm5.keytab
  supported_enctypes = aes256-cts:normal aes128-cts:normal des3-hmac-sha1:normal arcfour-hmac:normal camellia256-cts:normal camellia128-cts:normal des-hmac-sha1:normal des-cbc-md5:normal des-cbc-crc:normal
 }

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标红部分为需要修改的配置。

5.创建Kerberos数据库

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# kdb5_util create –r FAYSON.COM -s
Loading random data
Initializing database '/var/kerberos/krb5kdc/principal' for realm 'FAYSON.COM',
master key name 'K/M@FAYSON.COM'
You will be prompted for the database Master Password.
It is important that you NOT FORGET this password.
Enter KDC database master key: 
Re-enter KDC database master key to verify:

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此处需要输入Kerberos数据库的密码。

6.创建Kerberos的管理账号

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# kadmin.local
Authenticating as principal root/admin@FAYSON.COM with password.
kadmin.local:  addprinc admin/admin@FAYSON.COM
WARNING: no policy specified for admin/admin@FAYSON.COM; defaulting to no policy
Enter password for principal "admin/admin@FAYSON.COM": 
Re-enter password for principal "admin/admin@FAYSON.COM": 
Principal "admin/admin@FAYSON.COM" created.
kadmin.local:  exit

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标红部分为Kerberos管理员账号,需要输入管理员密码。

7.将Kerberos服务添加到自启动服务,并启动krb5kdc和kadmin服务

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# systemctl enable krb5kdc
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/krb5kdc.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/krb5kdc.service.
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# systemctl enable kadmin
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/kadmin.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/kadmin.service.
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# systemctl start krb5kdc
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# systemctl start kadmin

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8.测试Kerberos的管理员账号

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# kinit admin/admin@FAYSON.COM
Password for admin/admin@FAYSON.COM: 
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 ~]# klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: admin/admin@FAYSON.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
09/12/2018 12:54:17  09/13/2018 12:54:17  krbtgt/FAYSON.COM@FAYSON.COM
        renew until 09/19/2018 12:54:17

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9.为集群安装所有Kerberos客户端,包括Cloudera Manager

使用批处理脚本为集群所有节点安装Kerberos客户端

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# sh ssh_do_all.sh node.list 'yum -y install krb5-libs krb5-workstation'

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10.在Cloudera Manager Server服务器上安装额外的包

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# yum -y install openldap-clients

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11.将KDC Server上的krb5.conf文件拷贝到所有Kerberos客户端

使用批处理脚本将Kerberos服务端的krb5.conf配置文件拷贝至集群所有节点的/etc目录下:

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# sh bk_cp.sh node.list /etc/krb5.conf /etc/

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3.CDH集群启用Kerberos


1.在KDC中给Cloudera Manager添加管理员账号

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# kadmin.local
Authenticating as principal admin/admin@FAYSON.COM with password.
kadmin.local:   addprinc cloudera-scm/admin@FAYSON.COM
WARNING: no policy specified for cloudera-scm/admin@FAYSON.COM; defaulting to no policy
Enter password for principal "cloudera-scm/admin@FAYSON.COM": 
Re-enter password for principal "cloudera-scm/admin@FAYSON.COM": 
Principal "cloudera-scm/admin@FAYSON.COM" created.
kadmin.local:  exit

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2.进入Cloudera Manager的“管理” --> “安全”界面

3.选择“启用Kerberos”,进入如下界面

4.确保如下列出的所有检查项都已完成

5.点击“继续”,配置相关的KDC信息,包括类型、KDC服务器、KDC Realm、加密类型以及待创建的Service Principal(hdfs,yarn,,hbase,hive等)的更新生命期等

6.不建议让Cloudera Manager来管理krb5.conf, 点击“继续”

7.输入Cloudera Manager的Kerbers管理员账号,一定得和之前创建的账号一致,点击“继续”

8.点击“继续”启用Kerberos

9.Kerberos启用完成,点击“继续”

10.勾选重启集群,点击“继续”

11.集群重启完成,点击“继续”

12.点击“继续”

点击“完成”,至此已成功启用Kerberos。

4.Kerberos使用


使用fayson用户运行MapReduce任务及操作Hive,需要在集群所有节点创建fayson用户。

1.使用kadmin创建一个fayson的principal

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# kadmin.local
Authenticating as principal admin/admin@FAYSON.COM with password.
kadmin.local:  addprinc fayson@FAYSON.COM
WARNING: no policy specified for fayson@FAYSON.COM; defaulting to no policy
Enter password for principal "fayson@FAYSON.COM": 
Re-enter password for principal "fayson@FAYSON.COM": 
Principal "fayson@FAYSON.COM" created.
kadmin.local:  exit
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root

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2.使用fayson用户登录Kerberos

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# kdestroy
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# kinit fayson
Password for fayson@FAYSON.COM: 
[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]# klist
Ticket cache: FILE:/tmp/krb5cc_0
Default principal: fayson@FAYSON.COM

Valid starting       Expires              Service principal
09/12/2018 13:10:19  09/13/2018 13:10:19  krbtgt/FAYSON.COM@FAYSON.COM
        renew until 09/19/2018 13:10:19

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3.在集群所有节点添加fayson用户

使用批量脚本在所有节点添加fayson用户

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 shell]#  sh ssh_do_all.sh node.list "useradd fayson"

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4.运行MapReduce作业

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 hadoop-mapreduce]# hadoop jar /opt/cloudera/parcels/CDH/lib/hadoop-mapreduce/hadoop-mapreduce-examples.jar pi 10 1

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5.使用beeline连接hive进行测试

[root@ip-172-31-6-83 114-hdfs-NAMENODE]# beeline
WARNING: Use "yarn jar" to launch YARN applications.
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/cloudera/parcels/CDH-6.0.0-1.cdh6.0.0.p0.537114/jars/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.8.2.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/cloudera/parcels/CDH-6.0.0-1.cdh6.0.0.p0.537114/jars/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.25.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.apache.logging.slf4j.Log4jLoggerFactory]
Beeline version 2.1.1-cdh6.0.0 by Apache Hive
beeline>  !connect jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/;principal=hive/ip-172-31-6-83.ap-southeast-1.compute.internal@FAYSON.COM
Connecting to jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/;principal=hive/ip-172-31-6-83.ap-southeast-1.compute.internal@FAYSON.COM
Connected to: Apache Hive (version 2.1.1-cdh6.0.0)
Driver: Hive JDBC (version 2.1.1-cdh6.0.0)
Transaction isolation: TRANSACTION_REPEATABLE_READ
0: jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/>  show tables;
INFO  : Compiling command(queryId=hive_20180912131436_b299404d-8a2a-4d79-8ff5-490959188ab7): show tables
INFO  : Semantic Analysis Completed
INFO  : Returning Hive schema: Schema(fieldSchemas:[FieldSchema(name:tab_name, type:string, comment:from deserializer)], properties:null)
INFO  : Completed compiling command(queryId=hive_20180912131436_b299404d-8a2a-4d79-8ff5-490959188ab7); Time taken: 1.407 seconds
INFO  : Executing command(queryId=hive_20180912131436_b299404d-8a2a-4d79-8ff5-490959188ab7): show tables
INFO  : Starting task [Stage-0:DDL] in serial mode
INFO  : Completed executing command(queryId=hive_20180912131436_b299404d-8a2a-4d79-8ff5-490959188ab7); Time taken: 0.067 seconds
INFO  : OK
+-----------+
| tab_name  |
+-----------+
+-----------+
No rows selected (2.076 seconds)
0: jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/> create table t1 (s1 string,s2 string);
INFO  : Compiling command(queryId=hive_20180912131453_e0afea04-95ce-49b3-9c93-4ae99e2d477f): create table t1 (s1 string,s2 string)
INFO  : Semantic Analysis Completed
INFO  : Returning Hive schema: Schema(fieldSchemas:null, properties:null)
INFO  : Completed compiling command(queryId=hive_20180912131453_e0afea04-95ce-49b3-9c93-4ae99e2d477f); Time taken: 0.07 seconds
INFO  : Executing command(queryId=hive_20180912131453_e0afea04-95ce-49b3-9c93-4ae99e2d477f): create table t1 (s1 string,s2 string)
INFO  : Starting task [Stage-0:DDL] in serial mode
INFO  : Completed executing command(queryId=hive_20180912131453_e0afea04-95ce-49b3-9c93-4ae99e2d477f); Time taken: 0.107 seconds
INFO  : OK
No rows affected (0.219 seconds)

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向test表中插入数据

0: jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/> insert into t1 values('1','2');
0: jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/> select * from t1;

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执行一个Count语句

0: jdbc:hive2://localhost:10000/> select count(*) from t1;

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5.常见问题


1.使用Kerberos用户身份运行MapReduce作业报错

main : run as user is fayson
main : requested yarn user is fayson
Requested user fayson is not whitelisted and has id 501,which is below the minimum allowed 1000

Failing this attempt. Failing the application.
17/09/02 20:05:04 INFO mapreduce.Job: Counters: 0
Job Finished in 6.184 seconds
java.io.FileNotFoundException: File does not exist: hdfs://ip-172-31-6-148:8020/user/fayson/QuasiMonteCarlo_1504382696029_1308422444/out/reduce-out
        at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem$20.doCall(DistributedFileSystem.java:1266)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem$20.doCall(DistributedFileSystem.java:1258)
        at org.apache.hadoop.fs.FileSystemLinkResolver.resolve(FileSystemLinkResolver.java:81)
        at org.apache.hadoop.hdfs.DistributedFileSystem.getFileStatus(DistributedFileSystem.java:1258)
        at org.apache.hadoop.io.SequenceFile$Reader.<init>(SequenceFile.java:1820)
        at org.apache.hadoop.io.SequenceFile$Reader.<init>(SequenceFile.java:1844)
        at org.apache.hadoop.examples.QuasiMonteCarlo.estimatePi(QuasiMonteCarlo.java:314)
        at org.apache.hadoop.examples.QuasiMonteCarlo.run(QuasiMonteCarlo.java:354)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.ToolRunner.run(ToolRunner.java:70)
        at org.apache.hadoop.examples.QuasiMonteCarlo.main(QuasiMonteCarlo.java:363)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
        at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
        at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.ProgramDriver$ProgramDescription.invoke(ProgramDriver.java:71)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.ProgramDriver.run(ProgramDriver.java:144)
        at org.apache.hadoop.examples.ExampleDriver.main(ExampleDriver.java:74)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke0(Native Method)
        at sun.reflect.NativeMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(NativeMethodAccessorImpl.java:57)
        at sun.reflect.DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.invoke(DelegatingMethodAccessorImpl.java:43)
        at java.lang.reflect.Method.invoke(Method.java:606)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.run(RunJar.java:221)
        at org.apache.hadoop.util.RunJar.main(RunJar.java:136)

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问题原因:是由于Yarn限制了用户id小于1000的用户提交作业;

解决方法:修改Yarn的min.user.id来解决

2.进行kinit操作后,执行MR作业报“User fayson not found”

问题原因:在集群的节点上没有fayson这个用户

解决方法:需要在集群所有节点添加fayson用户

6.总结


  • CDH6与CDH5启用Kerberos的过程基本没差别,除了CDH6的界面有些许变化外。
  • 在CDH集群中启用Kerberos需要先安装Kerberos服务(krb5kdc和kadmin服务)
  • 在集群所有节点需要安装Kerberos客户端,用于和kdc服务通信
  • 在Cloudera Manager Server节点需要额外安装openldap-clients包
  • CDH集群启用Kerberos后,使用自己定义的fayson用户向集群提交作业需确保集群所有节点的操作系统中存在fayson用户,否则作业会执行失败

原文发布于微信公众号 - Hadoop实操(gh_c4c535955d0f)

原文发表时间:2018-09-13

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