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python 脚本生成为可执行文件

首先写一个简单的python脚本

import time

if __name__ == '__main__':
    print("hello world")
    time.sleep(10)

运行一下看看,如下:

下一步则是将其转为可执行文件。

安装PyInstaller

pip3 install pyinstaller

D:\pythonProject\build_excutable>pip3 install pyinstaller
Collecting pyinstaller
  Downloading https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/03/32/0e0de593f129bf1d1e77eed562496d154ef4460fd5cecfd78612ef39a0cc/PyInstaller-3.4.tar.gz (3.5MB)
    100% |████████████████████████████████| 3.5MB 23kB/s

查看 pyinstaller --version 版本

D:\pythonProject\build_excutable>pyinstaller --version
3.4

使用PyInstaller

首先查看一下help

D:\pythonProject\build_excutable>pyinstaller --help
usage: pyinstaller [-h] [-v] [-D] [-F] [--specpath DIR] [-n NAME]
                   [--add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>]
                   [--add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>] [-p DIR]
                   [--hidden-import MODULENAME]
                   [--additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH]
                   [--runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS] [--exclude-module EXCLUDES]
                   [--key KEY] [-d [{all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}]] [-s]
                   [--noupx] [-c] [-w]
                   [-i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>]
                   [--version-file FILE] [-m <FILE or XML>] [-r RESOURCE]
                   [--uac-admin] [--uac-uiaccess] [--win-private-assemblies]
                   [--win-no-prefer-redirects]
                   [--osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER]
                   [--runtime-tmpdir PATH] [--bootloader-ignore-signals]
                   [--distpath DIR] [--workpath WORKPATH] [-y]
                   [--upx-dir UPX_DIR] [-a] [--clean] [--log-level LEVEL]
                   scriptname [scriptname ...]

positional arguments:
  scriptname            name of scriptfiles to be processed or exactly one
                        .spec-file. If a .spec-file is specified, most options
                        are unnecessary and are ignored.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --version         Show program version info and exit.
  --distpath DIR        Where to put the bundled app (default: .\dist)
  --workpath WORKPATH   Where to put all the temporary work files, .log, .pyz
                        and etc. (default: .\build)
  -y, --noconfirm       Replace output directory (default:
                        SPECPATH\dist\SPECNAME) without asking for
                        confirmation
  --upx-dir UPX_DIR     Path to UPX utility (default: search the execution
                        path)
  -a, --ascii           Do not include unicode encoding support (default:
                        included if available)
  --clean               Clean PyInstaller cache and remove temporary files
                        before building.
  --log-level LEVEL     Amount of detail in build-time console messages. LEVEL
                        may be one of TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR,
                        CRITICAL (default: INFO).

What to generate:
  -D, --onedir          Create a one-folder bundle containing an executable
                        (default)
  -F, --onefile         Create a one-file bundled executable.
  --specpath DIR        Folder to store the generated spec file (default:
                        current directory)
  -n NAME, --name NAME  Name to assign to the bundled app and spec file
                        (default: first script's basename)

What to bundle, where to search:
  --add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                        Additional non-binary files or folders to be added to
                        the executable. The path separator is platform
                        specific, ``os.pathsep`` (which is ``;`` on Windows
                        and ``:`` on most unix systems) is used. This option
                        can be used multiple times.
  --add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                        Additional binary files to be added to the executable.
                        See the ``--add-data`` option for more details. This
                        option can be used multiple times.
  -p DIR, --paths DIR   A path to search for imports (like using PYTHONPATH).
                        Multiple paths are allowed, separated by ';', or use
                        this option multiple times
  --hidden-import MODULENAME, --hiddenimport MODULENAME
                        Name an import not visible in the code of the
                        script(s). This option can be used multiple times.
  --additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH
                        An additional path to search for hooks. This option
                        can be used multiple times.
  --runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS
                        Path to a custom runtime hook file. A runtime hook is
                        code that is bundled with the executable and is
                        executed before any other code or module to set up
                        special features of the runtime environment. This
                        option can be used multiple times.
  --exclude-module EXCLUDES
                        Optional module or package (the Python name, not the
                        path name) that will be ignored (as though it was not
                        found). This option can be used multiple times.
  --key KEY             The key used to encrypt Python bytecode.

How to generate:
  -d [{all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}], --debug [{all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}]
                        Provide assistance with debugging a frozen
                        application, by specifying one or more of the
                        following choices.

                        - all: All three of the below options; this is the
                          default choice, unless one of the choices below is
                          specified.

                        - imports: specify the -v option to the underlying
                          Python interpreter, causing it to print a message
                          each time a module is initialized, showing the
                          place (filename or built-in module) from which it
                          is loaded. See
                          https://docs.python.org/3/using/cmdline.html#id4.

                        - bootloader: tell the bootloader to issue progress
                          messages while initializing and starting the
                          bundled app. Used to diagnose problems with
                          missing imports.

                        - noarchive: instead of storing all frozen Python
                          source files as an archive inside the resulting
                          executable, store them as files in the resulting
                          output directory.

  -s, --strip           Apply a symbol-table strip to the executable and
                        shared libs (not recommended for Windows)
  --noupx               Do not use UPX even if it is available (works
                        differently between Windows and *nix)

Windows and Mac OS X specific options:
  -c, --console, --nowindowed
                        Open a console window for standard i/o (default)
  -w, --windowed, --noconsole
                        Windows and Mac OS X: do not provide a console window
                        for standard i/o. On Mac OS X this also triggers
                        building an OS X .app bundle. This option is ignored
                        in *NIX systems.
  -i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>, --icon <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns>
                        FILE.ico: apply that icon to a Windows executable.
                        FILE.exe,ID, extract the icon with ID from an exe.
                        FILE.icns: apply the icon to the .app bundle on Mac OS
                        X

Windows specific options:
  --version-file FILE   add a version resource from FILE to the exe
  -m <FILE or XML>, --manifest <FILE or XML>
                        add manifest FILE or XML to the exe
  -r RESOURCE, --resource RESOURCE
                        Add or update a resource to a Windows executable. The
                        RESOURCE is one to four items,
                        FILE[,TYPE[,NAME[,LANGUAGE]]]. FILE can be a data file
                        or an exe/dll. For data files, at least TYPE and NAME
                        must be specified. LANGUAGE defaults to 0 or may be
                        specified as wildcard * to update all resources of the
                        given TYPE and NAME. For exe/dll files, all resources
                        from FILE will be added/updated to the final
                        executable if TYPE, NAME and LANGUAGE are omitted or
                        specified as wildcard *.This option can be used
                        multiple times.
  --uac-admin           Using this option creates a Manifest which will
                        request elevation upon application restart.
  --uac-uiaccess        Using this option allows an elevated application to
                        work with Remote Desktop.

Windows Side-by-side Assembly searching options (advanced):
  --win-private-assemblies
                        Any Shared Assemblies bundled into the application
                        will be changed into Private Assemblies. This means
                        the exact versions of these assemblies will always be
                        used, and any newer versions installed on user
                        machines at the system level will be ignored.
  --win-no-prefer-redirects
                        While searching for Shared or Private Assemblies to
                        bundle into the application, PyInstaller will prefer
                        not to follow policies that redirect to newer
                        versions, and will try to bundle the exact versions of
                        the assembly.

Mac OS X specific options:
  --osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER
                        Mac OS X .app bundle identifier is used as the default
                        unique program name for code signing purposes. The
                        usual form is a hierarchical name in reverse DNS
                        notation. For example:
                        com.mycompany.department.appname (default: first
                        script's basename)

Rarely used special options:
  --runtime-tmpdir PATH
                        Where to extract libraries and support files in
                        `onefile`-mode. If this option is given, the
                        bootloader will ignore any temp-folder location
                        defined by the run-time OS. The ``_MEIxxxxxx``-folder
                        will be created here. Please use this option only if
                        you know what you are doing.
  --bootloader-ignore-signals
                        Tell the bootloader to ignore signals rather than
                        forwarding them to the child process. Useful in
                        situations where e.g. a supervisor process signals
                        both the bootloader and child (e.g. via a process
                        group) to avoid signalling the child twice.

D:\pythonProject\build_excutable>

最简单的用法,在和test.py同目录下执行命令:

pyinstaller test.py

然后会看到新增加了两个目录build和dist,dist下面的文件就是可以发布的可执行文件,对于上面的命令你会发现dist目录下面有一堆文件,各种都动态库文件和myscrip可执行文件。有时这样感觉比较麻烦,需要打包dist下面的所有东西才能发布,万一丢掉一个动态库就无法运行了,好在pyInstaller支持单文件模式,只需要执行:

pyinstaller -F test.py

D:\pythonProject\build_excutable>pyinstaller -F test.py
52 INFO: PyInstaller: 3.4
52 INFO: Python: 3.7.2
53 INFO: Platform: Windows-10-10.0.17134-SP0
55 INFO: wrote D:\pythonProject\build_excutable\test.spec
58 INFO: UPX is not available.
59 INFO: Extending PYTHONPATH with paths
['D:\\pythonProject\\build_excutable', 'D:\\pythonProject\\build_excutable']
59 INFO: checking Analysis
81 INFO: checking PYZ
94 INFO: checking PKG
95 INFO: Building because toc changed
95 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg
1473 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg completed successfully.
1475 INFO: Bootloader d:\python37\lib\site-packages\PyInstaller\bootloader\Windows-64bit\run.exe
1475 INFO: checking EXE
1476 INFO: Rebuilding EXE-00.toc because test.exe missing
1476 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc
1477 INFO: Appending archive to EXE D:\pythonProject\build_excutable\dist\test.exe
1484 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc completed successfully.

D:\pythonProject\build_excutable>

你会发现dist下面只有一个可执行文件,这个单文件就可以发布了,可以运行在你正在使用的操作系统类似的系统的下面。

运行一下这个可执行文件看看,如下:

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