(二)Caffe2搭建卷积神经网络实现MNIST手写字体识别及预测

1 写在前面

使用Caffe2搭建卷积神经网络,按照一般卷积网络流程走一遍没有问题,笔者想分享的是关于Caffe2数据载入问题,Caffe2有专用训练格式数据,如lmdb,leveldb,rocksdb这三种格式,在读取时,如果发生这样的错误:

db_. Cannot find db implementation of type lmdb (while trying to open /home/xdq/xinPrj/python/jupyter/Caffe2Pytorch/turorial_data/mnist/mnist-train-nchw-lmdb)

或者:

db_. Cannot open lmdb (while trying to open /home/xdq/xinPrj/python/jupyter/Caffe2Pytorch/turorial_data/mnist/mnist-train-nchw-lmdb)

是因为Caffe2和Pytorch合并后,使用官方预编译安装或源码编译安装的安装方式,默认数据读取参数是关闭的,即<kbd>USE_LMDB=OFF</kbd>,因此会出现不能读取或找不到对应数据集的问题.

解决方案

重新编译,配置参数:<kbd>USE_LMDB=ON</kbd>大致为:

# 下载项目源码
git clone https://github.com/pytorch/pytorch.git && cd pytorch
# 更新子模块
git submodule update --init --recursive
# 开启使用LMDB数据并编译安装caffe2
# USE_LMDB=ON是关键
USE_LMDB=ON python setup.py install

详细参考博客:Caffe2问题总结(一)

2 搭建卷积网络及获取数据

2.0 网络结构

手写字体识别使用经典LeNet-5卷积神经网络,结构如图1.0所示.

图2.0 LeNet-5示意图

2.2 网络分析

序号

网络层

描述

1

卷积层

一张原始图像(32, 32, 1),batch=1,经过卷积处理,得到图像特征(28, 28, 6)

2

下采样

即池化层,最大池化后图像特征(14, 14, 6)

3

卷积层

将池化特征(14, 14, 6)卷积处理后,得到图像特征(10, 10, 16)

4

下采样

最大池化,得到图像特征(5, 5, 16)

5

全连接层

将上一层即池化层的图像特征经过矩阵内积计算,拉成一个向量(5_5_16=120),特征为(1, 120)

6

全连接层

继续矩阵计算,得到特征为(1, 84)

7

高斯全连接

高斯矩阵计算,得到特征(1, 10)

2.3 获取数据

MNIST数据传送门:http://download.caffe2.ai/database/mnist-lmdb.zip

若Ubuntu系统浏览器不能下载,可使用迅雷下载,或Windows浏览器下载,并向数据解压放入文件夹<kbd>data_folder</kbd>中,程序中已有,可打印获取.

3 网络结构

3.1 源码

def AddLeNetModel(model, data):
    conv1 = brew.conv(model, data, 'conv1', dim_in=1, dim_out=20, kernel=5)
    pool1 = brew.max_pool(model, conv1, 'pool1', kernel=2, stride=2)
    conv2 = brew.conv(model, pool1, 'conv2', dim_in=20, dim_out=50, kernel=5)
    pool2 = brew.max_pool(model, conv2, 'pool2', kernel=2, stride=2)
    fc3 = brew.fc(model, pool2, 'fc3', dim_in=50*4*4, dim_out=500)
    relu3 = brew.relu(model, fc3, 'relu3')
    pred = brew.fc(model, relu3, 'pred', dim_in=500, dim_out=10)
    softmax = brew.softmax(model, pred, 'softmax')
    return softmax

3.2 可视化结构

图3.1 卷积网络结构

4 训练及测试

4.1 优化器

xent = model.LabelCrossEntropy([softmax, label], 'xent')
loss = model.AveragedLoss(xent, 'loss')
AddAccuracy(model, softmax, label)
model.AddGradientOperators([loss])
optimizer.build_sgd(model, base_learning_rate=0.1, policy="step", stepsize=1, gamma=0.999,)

4.2 训练

workspace.RunNetOnce(train_model.param_init_net)
workspace.CreateNet(train_model.net, overwrite=True)
total_iters = 200
accuracy = np.zeros(total_iters)
loss = np.zeros(total_iters)
for i in range(total_iters):
    workspace.RunNet(train_model.net)
    accuracy[i] = workspace.blobs["accuracy"]
    loss[i] = workspace.blobs['loss']
    if i % 25 == 0:
        print("Iter: {}, loss: {}, accuracy: {}".format(i, loss[i], accuracy[i]))
plt.plot(loss, 'b')
plt.plot(accuracy, 'r')
plt.title("Summary of Training Run")
plt.xlabel("Iteration")
plt.legend(("Loss", "Accuracy"), loc="upper right")

4.3 保存模型

pe_meta = pe.PredictorExportMeta(
        predict_net=deploy_model.net.Proto(),
        parameters=[str(b) for b in deploy_model.params],
        inputs=["data"],
        outputs=["softmax"],)
pe.save_to_db("minidb", os.path.join(root_folder, "mnist_model.minidb"), pe_meta)
print("Deploy model saved to:" + root_folder + "/mnist_model.minidb")

5 模型载入及预测

5.1 模型载入

blob = workspace.FetchBlob("data")
plt.figure()
plt.title("Batch of Testing Data")
_ = visualize.NCHW.ShowMultiple(blob)

workspace.ResetWorkspace(root_folder)
print("The blobs in the workspace after reset: {}".format(workspace.Blobs()))
predict_net = pe.prepare_prediction_net(os.path.join(root_folder, "mnist_model.minidb"), "minidb")
print("The blobs in the workspace after loading the model: {}".format(workspace.Blobs()))

5.2 预测

workspace.FeedBlob("data", blob)
workspace.RunNetOnce(predict_net)
softmax = workspace.FetchBlob("softmax")
print("Shape of softmax: {}".format(softmax.shape))
curr_pred, curr_conf = max(enumerate(softmax[0]), key=operator.itemgetter(1))
print("Prediction: {}".format(curr_pred))
print("Confidence: {}".format(curr_conf))
plt.figure()
plt.title("Prediction for the first image")
plt.ylabel("Confidence")
plt.xlabel("Label")
_ = plt.plot(softmax[0], 'ro')

6 可视化

6.1 网络结构可视化

如图2.1所示.

from IPython import display
# 图像方向BT:bottom top上下结构,LR:left right左右方向
graph = net_drawer.GetPydotGraphMinimal(train_model.net.Proto().op, "mnist", rankdir="BT", minimal_dependency=True)
# 保存图像
graph.write_png("./images/network_structure_1.png")
# jupyter notebook直接显示
display.Image(graph.create_png(), width=800)

6.2 卷积特征可视化

plt.figure()
    plt.title("Conv1 Output Feature Maps for Most Recent Mini_batch")
    conv = workspace.FetchBlob("conv1")
    conv = conv[:, [5], :, :]
    print("conv shape: {}".format(conv.shape))
    _ = visualize.NCHW.ShowMultiple(conv)
    plt.savefig("./images/conv1.png", format="png")
图6.1 conv1层图像特征

7 完整源码

#coding:utf8
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
from __future__ import unicode_literals
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
import os
import shutil
import operator
import caffe2.python.predictor.predictor_exporter as pe
# from caffe2.python import core
from caffe2.python import brew, core, model_helper, net_drawer, optimizer, visualize, workspace
from IPython import display
# import requests, StringIO, zipfile
# import urllib2, urllib

# caffe2初始化细节:caffe2_log_level=1
core.GlobalInit(["caffe2", "--caffe2_log_level=1"])
USE_LENET_MODEL = True
# 当前文件夹路径
current_folder = os.path.abspath(os.path.dirname(__name__))
# 图像数据集路径
data_folder = os.path.join(current_folder, "turorial_data", "mnist")
# 根路径,存储模型日志文件,及workspace分配的空间
root_folder = os.path.join(current_folder, "turorial_files", "tutorial_mnist")
db_missing = False
if not os.path.exists(data_folder):
    os.makedirs(data_folder)
if os.path.exists(os.path.join(data_folder, "mnist-train-nchw-lmdb")):
    print("lmdb train db found!")
else:
    print("Please download datasets manually!")

workspace.ResetWorkspace(root_folder)
print("training data folder:" + data_folder)
print("workspace root folder:" + root_folder)

def AddInput(model, batch_size, db, db_type):
    '''数据读取
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
		batch_size: 数据组尺寸
		db: lmdb数据
		db_type: 数据格式
	返回:
		data: 图像数据
		label: 图像标签
	'''
    data_uint8, label = model.TensorProtosDBInput([], ["data_uint8", "label"], batch_size=batch_size, db=db, db_type=db_type)
    data = model.Cast(data_uint8, "data", to=core.DataType.FLOAT)
    data = model.Scale(data, data, scale=float(1./256))
    data = model.StopGradient(data, data)
    return data, label

def AddMLPModel(model, data):
    '''普通神经网络模型.
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
		data: 图像数据
	返回:
		softmax: 类别数据
	'''
    size = 28*28*1
    sizes = [size, size*2, size*2, 10]
    layer = data
    for i in range(len(sizes)-1):
        layer = brew.fc(model, layer, 'dense_{}'.format(i), dim_in=sizes[i], dim_out=sizes[i+1])
        layer = brew.relu(model, layer, 'relu_{}'.format(i))
    softmax = brew.softmax(model, layer, 'softmax')
    return softmax

def AddLeNetModel(model, data):
    '''卷积神经网络.
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
		data: 图像数据
	返回:
		softmax: 类别数据
	'''
    conv1 = brew.conv(model, data, 'conv1', dim_in=1, dim_out=20, kernel=5)
    pool1 = brew.max_pool(model, conv1, 'pool1', kernel=2, stride=2)
    conv2 = brew.conv(model, pool1, 'conv2', dim_in=20, dim_out=50, kernel=5)
    pool2 = brew.max_pool(model, conv2, 'pool2', kernel=2, stride=2)
    fc3 = brew.fc(model, pool2, 'fc3', dim_in=50*4*4, dim_out=500)
    relu3 = brew.relu(model, fc3, 'relu3')
    pred = brew.fc(model, relu3, 'pred', dim_in=500, dim_out=10)
    softmax = brew.softmax(model, pred, 'softmax')
    return softmax

def AddModel(model, data):
    '''选择模型结构.
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
		data: 图像数据
	返回:
		softmax: 对应模型的分类数据
	'''
    if USE_LENET_MODEL:
        return AddLeNetModel(model, data)
    else:
        return AddMLPModel(model, data)

def AddAccuracy(model, softmax, label):
    '''模型准确率.
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
		softmax: 分类数据
		lable:图像标签
	返回:
		accuracy: 识别准确率
	'''
    accuracy = brew.accuracy(model, [softmax, label], 'accuracy')
    return accuracy

def AddTrainingOperators(model, softmax, label):
    '''优化参数,训练模型.
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
		softmax: 分类数据
		label: 图像标签
	返回:
		None
	'''
    xent = model.LabelCrossEntropy([softmax, label], 'xent')
    loss = model.AveragedLoss(xent, 'loss')
    AddAccuracy(model, softmax, label)
    model.AddGradientOperators([loss])
    optimizer.build_sgd(model, base_learning_rate=0.1, policy="step", stepsize=1, gamma=0.999)

def AddBookkeepingOperator(model):
    '''日志记录,保存到文件或日志,本程序使用root_folder作为workspace,
	可在root_folder找到.
	参数:
		model: 模型结构
	返回:
		None
	'''
    model.Print("accuracy", [], to_file=1)
    model.Print("loss", [], to_file=1)
    for param in model.params:
        model.Summarize(param, [], to_file=1)
        model.Summarize(model.param_to_grad[param], [], to_file=1)
# 图像数据格式
arg_scope = {"order":"NCHW"}
# 模型结构
train_model = model_helper.ModelHelper(name="mnist_train", arg_scope=arg_scope)
data, label = AddInput(train_model, batch_size=64, 
                      db=os.path.join(data_folder, "mnist-train-nchw-lmdb"),
                      db_type='lmdb')
softmax = AddModel(train_model, data)
AddTrainingOperators(train_model, softmax, label)
AddBookkeepingOperator(train_model)
test_model = model_helper.ModelHelper(name="mnist_test", arg_scope=arg_scope, init_params=False)
data, label = AddInput(test_model, batch_size=100, db=os.path.join(data_folder, "mnist-test-nchw-lmdb"),
                      db_type='lmdb')
softmax = AddModel(test_model, data)
AddAccuracy(test_model, softmax, label)
deploy_model = model_helper.ModelHelper(name="mnist_deploy", arg_scope=arg_scope, init_params=False)
AddModel(deploy_model, "data")

workspace.RunNetOnce(train_model.param_init_net)
workspace.CreateNet(train_model.net, overwrite=True)
total_iters = 200
accuracy = np.zeros(total_iters)
loss = np.zeros(total_iters)
for i in range(total_iters):
    workspace.RunNet(train_model.net)
    accuracy[i] = workspace.blobs["accuracy"]
    loss[i] = workspace.blobs['loss']
    if i % 25 == 0:
        print("Iter: {}, loss: {}, accuracy: {}".format(i, loss[i], accuracy[i]))
plt.plot(loss, 'b')
plt.plot(accuracy, 'r')
plt.title("Summary of Training Run")
plt.xlabel("Iteration")
plt.legend(("Loss", "Accuracy"), loc="upper right")
plt.show()
pe_meta = pe.PredictorExportMeta(
        predict_net=deploy_model.net.Proto(),
        parameters=[str(b) for b in deploy_model.params],
        inputs=["data"],
        outputs=["softmax"],)
pe.save_to_db("minidb", os.path.join(root_folder, "mnist_model.minidb"), pe_meta)
print("Deploy model saved to:" + root_folder + "/mnist_model.minidb")

blob = workspace.FetchBlob("data")
plt.figure()
plt.title("Batch of Testing Data")
_ = visualize.NCHW.ShowMultiple(blob)

workspace.ResetWorkspace(root_folder)
print("The blobs in the workspace after reset: {}".format(workspace.Blobs()))
predict_net = pe.prepare_prediction_net(os.path.join(root_folder, "mnist_model.minidb"), "minidb")
print("The blobs in the workspace after loading the model: {}".format(workspace.Blobs()))
workspace.FeedBlob("data", blob)
workspace.RunNetOnce(predict_net)
softmax = workspace.FetchBlob("softmax")
print("Shape of softmax: {}".format(softmax.shape))
curr_pred, curr_conf = max(enumerate(softmax[0]), key=operator.itemgetter(1))
print("Prediction: {}".format(curr_pred))
print("Confidence: {}".format(curr_conf))
plt.figure()
plt.title("Prediction for the first image")
plt.ylabel("Confidence")
plt.xlabel("Label")
_ = plt.plot(softmax[0], 'ro')
plt.show()

8 结果

8.1 训练过程结果

损失函数与准确率.

图7.1 训练损失函数与准确率

8.2 模型准确率

图8.2 模型预测测试数据准确率

8.3 预测结果

图8.3 第n组测试数据
图8.4 测试数据集第一数据结果

参考文献

1 https://caffe2.ai/docs/tutorial-MNIST.html

2 https://github.com/caffe2/tutorials/blob/master/MNIST.ipynb


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