爬虫框架scrapy

Scrapy是一个为了爬取网站数据,提取结构性数据而编写的应用框架。 其可以应用在数据挖掘,信息处理或存储历史数据等一系列的程序中。 其最初是为了页面抓取 (更确切来说, 网络抓取 )所设计的, 也可以应用在获取API所返回的数据(例如 Amazon Associates Web Services ) 或者通用的网络爬虫。Scrapy用途广泛,可以用于数据挖掘、监测和自动化测试。

Scrapy 使用了 Twisted异步网络库来处理网络通讯。整体架构大致如下

Scrapy主要包括了以下组件:

  • 引擎(Scrapy) 用来处理整个系统的数据流处理, 触发事务(框架核心)
  • 调度器(Scheduler) 用来接受引擎发过来的请求, 压入队列中, 并在引擎再次请求的时候返回. 可以想像成一个URL(抓取网页的网址或者说是链接)的优先队列, 由它来决定下一个要抓取的网址是什么, 同时去除重复的网址
  • 下载器(Downloader) 用于下载网页内容, 并将网页内容返回给蜘蛛(Scrapy下载器是建立在twisted这个高效的异步模型上的)
  • 爬虫(Spiders) 爬虫是主要干活的, 用于从特定的网页中提取自己需要的信息, 即所谓的实体(Item)。用户也可以从中提取出链接,让Scrapy继续抓取下一个页面
  • 项目管道(Pipeline) 负责处理爬虫从网页中抽取的实体,主要的功能是持久化实体、验证实体的有效性、清除不需要的信息。当页面被爬虫解析后,将被发送到项目管道,并经过几个特定的次序处理数据。
  • 下载器中间件(Downloader Middlewares) 位于Scrapy引擎和下载器之间的框架,主要是处理Scrapy引擎与下载器之间的请求及响应。
  • 爬虫中间件(Spider Middlewares) 介于Scrapy引擎和爬虫之间的框架,主要工作是处理蜘蛛的响应输入和请求输出。
  • 调度中间件(Scheduler Middewares) 介于Scrapy引擎和调度之间的中间件,从Scrapy引擎发送到调度的请求和响应。

Scrapy运行流程大概如下:

  1. 引擎从调度器中取出一个链接(URL)用于接下来的抓取
  2. 引擎把URL封装成一个请求(Request)传给下载器
  3. 下载器把资源下载下来,并封装成应答包(Response)
  4. 爬虫解析Response
  5. 解析出实体(Item),则交给实体管道进行进一步的处理
  6. 解析出的是链接(URL),则把URL交给调度器等待抓取

一、安装

linux安装

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pip install Scrapy

注:windows平台需要依赖pywin32,请根据自己系统32/64位选择下载安装,https://sourceforge.net/projects/pywin32/

windows安装

a. pip3 install wheel

b. 下载twisted http://www.lfd.uci.edu/~gohlke/pythonlibs/#twisted

c. 进入下载目录,执行 pip3 install Twisted‑17.1.0‑cp35‑cp35m‑win_amd64.whl

d. pip3 install scrapy

e.pip3 install pypiwin32

二、基本使用

基本命令

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1. scrapy startproject 项目名称 - 在当前目录中创建中创建一个项目文件(类似于Django) 2. scrapy genspider [-t template] <name> <domain> - 创建爬虫应用 如: scrapy gensipider -t basic oldboy oldboy.com scrapy gensipider -t xmlfeed autohome autohome.com.cn PS: 查看所有命令:scrapy gensipider -l 查看模板命令:scrapy gensipider -d 模板名称 3. scrapy list - 展示爬虫应用列表 4. scrapy crawl 爬虫应用名称 - 运行单独爬虫应用

1、创建项目

运行命令:

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scrapy startproject your_project_name

自动创建目录:

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project_name/ scrapy.cfg project_name/ __init__.py items.py pipelines.py settings.py spiders/ __init__.py

文件说明:

  • scrapy.cfg 项目的配置信息,主要为Scrapy命令行工具提供一个基础的配置信息。(真正爬虫相关的配置信息在settings.py文件中)
  • items.py 设置数据存储模板,用于结构化数据,如:Django的Model
  • pipelines 数据处理行为,如:一般结构化的数据持久化
  • settings.py 配置文件,如:递归的层数、并发数,延迟下载等
  • spiders 爬虫目录,如:创建文件,编写爬虫规则

注意:一般创建爬虫文件时,以网站域名命名

2、编写爬虫

在spiders目录中新建 xiaohuar_spider.py 文件

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#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding:utf-8 -*- import scrapy class XiaoHuarSpider(scrapy.spiders.Spider): name = "xiaohuar" allowed_domains = ["xiaohuar.com"] start_urls = [ "http://www.xiaohuar.com/hua/", ] def parse(self, response): # print(response, type(response)) # from scrapy.http.response.html import HtmlResponse # print(response.body_as_unicode()) current_url = response.url body = response.body unicode_body = response.body_as_unicode()

报错处理办法

import sys,os
sys.stdout=io.TextIOWrapper(sys.stdout.buffer,encoding='gb18030')

3、运行

进入project_name目录,运行命令

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scrapy crawl spider_name --nolog

4、递归的访问

以上的爬虫仅仅是爬去初始页,而我们爬虫是需要源源不断的执行下去,直到所有的网页被执行完毕

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#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding:utf-8 -*- import scrapy from scrapy.http import Request from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector import re import urllib import os class XiaoHuarSpider(scrapy.spiders.Spider): name = "xiaohuar" allowed_domains = ["xiaohuar.com"] start_urls = [ "http://www.xiaohuar.com/list-1-1.html", ] def parse(self, response): # 分析页面 # 找到页面中符合规则的内容(校花图片),保存 # 找到所有的a标签,再访问其他a标签,一层一层的搞下去 hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response) # 如果url是 http://www.xiaohuar.com/list-1-\d+.html if re.match('http://www.xiaohuar.com/list-1-\d+.html', response.url): items = hxs.select('//div[@class="item_list infinite_scroll"]/div') for i in range(len(items)): src = hxs.select('//div[@class="item_list infinite_scroll"]/div[%d]//div[@class="img"]/a/img/@src' % i).extract() name = hxs.select('//div[@class="item_list infinite_scroll"]/div[%d]//div[@class="img"]/span/text()' % i).extract() school = hxs.select('//div[@class="item_list infinite_scroll"]/div[%d]//div[@class="img"]/div[@class="btns"]/a/text()' % i).extract() if src: ab_src = "http://www.xiaohuar.com" + src[0] file_name = "%s_%s.jpg" % (school[0].encode('utf-8'), name[0].encode('utf-8')) file_path = os.path.join("/Users/wupeiqi/PycharmProjects/beauty/pic", file_name) urllib.urlretrieve(ab_src, file_path) # 获取所有的url,继续访问,并在其中寻找相同的url all_urls = hxs.select('//a/@href').extract() for url in all_urls: if url.startswith('http://www.xiaohuar.com/list-1-'): yield Request(url, callback=self.parse)

以上代码将符合规则的页面中的图片保存在指定目录,并且在HTML源码中找到所有的其他 a 标签的href属性,从而“递归”的执行下去,直到所有的页面都被访问过为止。以上代码之所以可以进行“递归”的访问相关URL,关键在于parse方法使用了 yield Request对象。

注:可以修改settings.py 中的配置文件,以此来指定“递归”的层数,如: DEPTH_LIMIT = 1

from scrapy.selector import Selector
from scrapy.http import HtmlResponse
html = """<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head lang="en">
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title></title>
</head>
<body>
    <li class="item-"><a href="link.html">first item</a></li>
    <li class="item-0"><a href="link1.html">first item</a></li>
    <li class="item-1"><a href="link2.html">second item</a></li>
</body>
</html>
"""
response = HtmlResponse(url='http://example.com', body=html,encoding='utf-8')
ret = Selector(response=response).xpath('//li[re:test(@class, "item-\d*")]//@href').extract()
print(ret)
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import scrapy
import hashlib
from tutorial.items import JinLuoSiItem
from scrapy.http import Request
from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector


class JinLuoSiSpider(scrapy.spiders.Spider):
    count = 0
    url_set = set()

    name = "jluosi"
    domain = 'http://www.jluosi.com'
    allowed_domains = ["jluosi.com"]

    start_urls = [
        "http://www.jluosi.com:80/ec/goodsDetail.action?jls=QjRDNEIzMzAzOEZFNEE3NQ==",
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        md5_obj = hashlib.md5()
        md5_obj.update(response.url)
        md5_url = md5_obj.hexdigest()
        if md5_url in JinLuoSiSpider.url_set:
            pass
        else:
            JinLuoSiSpider.url_set.add(md5_url)
            hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
            if response.url.startswith('http://www.jluosi.com:80/ec/goodsDetail.action'):
                item = JinLuoSiItem()
                item['company'] = hxs.select('//div[@class="ShopAddress"]/ul/li[1]/text()').extract()
                item['link'] = hxs.select('//div[@class="ShopAddress"]/ul/li[2]/text()').extract()
                item['qq'] = hxs.select('//div[@class="ShopAddress"]//a/@href').re('.*uin=(?P<qq>\d*)&')
                item['address'] = hxs.select('//div[@class="ShopAddress"]/ul/li[4]/text()').extract()

                item['title'] = hxs.select('//h1[@class="goodsDetail_goodsName"]/text()').extract()

                item['unit'] = hxs.select('//table[@class="R_WebDetail_content_tab"]//tr[1]//td[3]/text()').extract()
                product_list = []
                product_tr = hxs.select('//table[@class="R_WebDetail_content_tab"]//tr')
                for i in range(2,len(product_tr)):
                    temp = {
                        'standard':hxs.select('//table[@class="R_WebDetail_content_tab"]//tr[%d]//td[2]/text()' %i).extract()[0].strip(),
                        'price':hxs.select('//table[@class="R_WebDetail_content_tab"]//tr[%d]//td[3]/text()' %i).extract()[0].strip(),
                    }
                    product_list.append(temp)

                item['product_list'] = product_list
                yield item

            current_page_urls = hxs.select('//a/@href').extract()
            for i in range(len(current_page_urls)):
                url = current_page_urls[i]
                if url.startswith('http://www.jluosi.com'):
                    url_ab = url
                    yield Request(url_ab, callback=self.parse)
def parse(self, response):
    from scrapy.http.cookies import CookieJar
    cookieJar = CookieJar()
    cookieJar.extract_cookies(response, response.request)
    print(cookieJar._cookies)

更多选择器规则:http://scrapy-chs.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/latest/topics/selectors.html

5、格式化处理

上述实例只是简单的图片处理,所以在parse方法中直接处理。如果对于想要获取更多的数据(获取页面的价格、商品名称、QQ等),则可以利用Scrapy的items将数据格式化,然后统一交由pipelines来处理。

在items.py中创建类:

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*- # Define here the models for your scraped items # # See documentation in: # http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/items.html import scrapy class JieYiCaiItem(scrapy.Item): company = scrapy.Field() title = scrapy.Field() qq = scrapy.Field() info = scrapy.Field() more = scrapy.Field()

上述定义模板,以后对于从请求的源码中获取的数据同意按照此结构来获取,所以在spider中需要有一下操作:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

import scrapy
import hashlib
from beauty.items import JieYiCaiItem
from scrapy.http import Request
from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector
from scrapy.spiders import CrawlSpider, Rule
from scrapy.linkextractors import LinkExtractor


class JieYiCaiSpider(scrapy.spiders.Spider):
    count = 0
    url_set = set()

    name = "jieyicai"
    domain = 'http://www.jieyicai.com'
    allowed_domains = ["jieyicai.com"]

    start_urls = [
        "http://www.jieyicai.com",
    ]

    rules = [
        #下面是符合规则的网址,但是不抓取内容,只是提取该页的链接(这里网址是虚构的,实际使用时请替换)
        #Rule(SgmlLinkExtractor(allow=(r'http://test_url/test?page_index=\d+'))),
        #下面是符合规则的网址,提取内容,(这里网址是虚构的,实际使用时请替换)
        #Rule(LinkExtractor(allow=(r'http://www.jieyicai.com/Product/Detail.aspx?pid=\d+')), callback="parse"),
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        md5_obj = hashlib.md5()
        md5_obj.update(response.url)
        md5_url = md5_obj.hexdigest()
        if md5_url in JieYiCaiSpider.url_set:
            pass
        else:
            JieYiCaiSpider.url_set.add(md5_url)
            
            hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
            if response.url.startswith('http://www.jieyicai.com/Product/Detail.aspx'):
                item = JieYiCaiItem()
                item['company'] = hxs.select('//span[@class="username g-fs-14"]/text()').extract()
                item['qq'] = hxs.select('//span[@class="g-left bor1qq"]/a/@href').re('.*uin=(?P<qq>\d*)&')
                item['info'] = hxs.select('//div[@class="padd20 bor1 comard"]/text()').extract()
                item['more'] = hxs.select('//li[@class="style4"]/a/@href').extract()
                item['title'] = hxs.select('//div[@class="g-left prodetail-text"]/h2/text()').extract()
                yield item

            current_page_urls = hxs.select('//a/@href').extract()
            for i in range(len(current_page_urls)):
                url = current_page_urls[i]
                if url.startswith('/'):
                    url_ab = JieYiCaiSpider.domain + url
                    yield Request(url_ab, callback=self.parse)

此处代码的关键在于:

  • 将获取的数据封装在了Item对象中
  • yield Item对象 (一旦parse中执行yield Item对象,则自动将该对象交个pipelines的类来处理)
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Define your item pipelines here
#
# Don't forget to add your pipeline to the ITEM_PIPELINES setting
# See: http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html

import json
from twisted.enterprise import adbapi
import MySQLdb.cursors
import re

mobile_re = re.compile(r'(13[0-9]|15[012356789]|17[678]|18[0-9]|14[57])[0-9]{8}')
phone_re = re.compile(r'(\d+-\d+|\d+)')

class JsonPipeline(object):

    def __init__(self):
        self.file = open('/Users/wupeiqi/PycharmProjects/beauty/beauty/jieyicai.json', 'wb')


    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        line = "%s  %s\n" % (item['company'][0].encode('utf-8'), item['title'][0].encode('utf-8'))
        self.file.write(line)
        return item

class DBPipeline(object):

    def __init__(self):
        self.db_pool = adbapi.ConnectionPool('MySQLdb',
                                             db='DbCenter',
                                             user='root',
                                             passwd='123',
                                             cursorclass=MySQLdb.cursors.DictCursor,
                                             use_unicode=True)

    def process_item(self, item, spider):
        query = self.db_pool.runInteraction(self._conditional_insert, item)
        query.addErrback(self.handle_error)
        return item

    def _conditional_insert(self, tx, item):
        tx.execute("select nid from company where company = %s", (item['company'][0], ))
        result = tx.fetchone()
        if result:
            pass
        else:
            phone_obj = phone_re.search(item['info'][0].strip())
            phone = phone_obj.group() if phone_obj else ' '

            mobile_obj = mobile_re.search(item['info'][1].strip())
            mobile = mobile_obj.group() if mobile_obj else ' '

            values = (
                item['company'][0],
                item['qq'][0],
                phone,
                mobile,
                item['info'][2].strip(),
                item['more'][0])
            tx.execute("insert into company(company,qq,phone,mobile,address,more) values(%s,%s,%s,%s,%s,%s)", values)

    def handle_error(self, e):
        print 'error',e

上述中的pipelines中有多个类,到底Scapy会自动执行那个?哈哈哈哈,当然需要先配置了,不然Scapy就蒙逼了。。。

在settings.py中做如下配置:

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ITEM_PIPELINES = { 'beauty.pipelines.DBPipeline': 300, 'beauty.pipelines.JsonPipeline': 100, } # 每行后面的整型值,确定了他们运行的顺序,item按数字从低到高的顺序,通过pipeline,通常将这些数字定义在0-1000范围内。

6. 小试牛刀

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import scrapy from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector from scrapy.http.request import Request class DigSpider(scrapy.Spider): # 爬虫应用的名称,通过此名称启动爬虫命令 name = "dig" # 允许的域名 allowed_domains = ["chouti.com"] # 起始URL start_urls = [ 'http://dig.chouti.com/', ] has_request_set = {} def parse(self, response): print(response.url) hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response) page_list = hxs.select('//div[@id="dig_lcpage"]//a[re:test(@href, "/all/hot/recent/\d+")]/@href').extract() for page in page_list: page_url = 'http://dig.chouti.com%s' % page key = self.md5(page_url) if key in self.has_request_set: pass else: self.has_request_set[key] = page_url obj = Request(url=page_url, method='GET', callback=self.parse) yield obj @staticmethod def md5(val): import hashlib ha = hashlib.md5() ha.update(bytes(val, encoding='utf-8')) key = ha.hexdigest() return key

执行此爬虫文件,则在终端进入项目目录执行如下命令:

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scrapy crawl dig --nolog

对于上述代码重要之处在于:

  • Request是一个封装用户请求的类,在回调函数中yield该对象表示继续访问
  • HtmlXpathSelector用于结构化HTML代码并提供选择器功能

7. 选择器

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#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding:utf-8 -*- from scrapy.selector import Selector, HtmlXPathSelector from scrapy.http import HtmlResponse html = """<!DOCTYPE html> <html> <head lang="en"> <meta charset="UTF-8"> <title></title> </head> <body> <ul> <li class="item-"><a id='i1' href="link.html">first item</a></li> <li class="item-0"><a id='i2' href="llink.html">first item</a></li> <li class="item-1"><a href="llink2.html">second item<span>vv</span></a></li> </ul> <div><a href="llink2.html">second item</a></div> </body> </html> """ response = HtmlResponse(url='http://example.com', body=html,encoding='utf-8') # hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response) # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[2]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@id]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@id="i1"]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[@href="link.html"][@id="i1"]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[contains(@href, "link")]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[starts-with(@href, "link")]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]') # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]/text()').extract() # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//a[re:test(@id, "i\d+")]/@href').extract() # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('/html/body/ul/li/a/@href').extract() # print(hxs) # hxs = Selector(response=response).xpath('//body/ul/li/a/@href').extract_first() # print(hxs) # ul_list = Selector(response=response).xpath('//body/ul/li') # for item in ul_list: # v = item.xpath('./a/span') # # 或 # # v = item.xpath('a/span') # # 或 # # v = item.xpath('*/a/span') # print(v)

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from scrapy.selector import HtmlXPathSelector
from scrapy.http.request import Request
from scrapy.http.cookies import CookieJar
from scrapy import FormRequest


class ChouTiSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    # 爬虫应用的名称,通过此名称启动爬虫命令
    name = "chouti"
    # 允许的域名
    allowed_domains = ["chouti.com"]

    cookie_dict = {}
    has_request_set = {}

    def start_requests(self):
        url = 'http://dig.chouti.com/'
        # return [Request(url=url, callback=self.login)]
        yield Request(url=url, callback=self.login)

    def login(self, response):
        cookie_jar = CookieJar()
        cookie_jar.extract_cookies(response, response.request)
        for k, v in cookie_jar._cookies.items():
            for i, j in v.items():
                for m, n in j.items():
                    self.cookie_dict[m] = n.value

        req = Request(
            url='http://dig.chouti.com/login',
            method='POST',
            headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'},
            body='phone=8615131255089&password=pppppppp&oneMonth=1',
            cookies=self.cookie_dict,
            callback=self.check_login
        )
        yield req

    def check_login(self, response):
        req = Request(
            url='http://dig.chouti.com/',
            method='GET',
            callback=self.show,
            cookies=self.cookie_dict,
            dont_filter=True
        )
        yield req

    def show(self, response):
        # print(response)
        hxs = HtmlXPathSelector(response)
        news_list = hxs.select('//div[@id="content-list"]/div[@class="item"]')
        for new in news_list:
            # temp = new.xpath('div/div[@class="part2"]/@share-linkid').extract()
            link_id = new.xpath('*/div[@class="part2"]/@share-linkid').extract_first()
            yield Request(
                url='http://dig.chouti.com/link/vote?linksId=%s' %(link_id,),
                method='POST',
                cookies=self.cookie_dict,
                callback=self.do_favor
            )

        page_list = hxs.select('//div[@id="dig_lcpage"]//a[re:test(@href, "/all/hot/recent/\d+")]/@href').extract()
        for page in page_list:

            page_url = 'http://dig.chouti.com%s' % page
            import hashlib
            hash = hashlib.md5()
            hash.update(bytes(page_url,encoding='utf-8'))
            key = hash.hexdigest()
            if key in self.has_request_set:
                pass
            else:
                self.has_request_set[key] = page_url
                yield Request(
                    url=page_url,
                    method='GET',
                    callback=self.show
                )

    def do_favor(self, response):
        print(response.text)
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
import scrapy
from scrapy.http.response.html import HtmlResponse
from scrapy.http import Request
from scrapy.http.cookies import CookieJar


class ChoutiSpider(scrapy.Spider):
    name = "chouti"
    allowed_domains = ["chouti.com"]
    start_urls = (
        'http://www.chouti.com/',
    )

    def start_requests(self):
        url = 'http://dig.chouti.com/'
        yield Request(url=url, callback=self.login, meta={'cookiejar': True})

    def login(self, response):
        print(response.headers.getlist('Set-Cookie'))
        req = Request(
            url='http://dig.chouti.com/login',
            method='POST',
            headers={'Content-Type': 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8'},
            body='phone=8613121758648&password=woshiniba&oneMonth=1',
            callback=self.check_login,
            meta={'cookiejar': True}
        )
        yield req

    def check_login(self, response):
        print(response.text)

注意:settings.py中设置DEPTH_LIMIT = 1来指定“递归”的层数。

8.中间件

class SpiderMiddleware(object):

    def process_spider_input(self,response, spider):
        """
        下载完成,执行,然后交给parse处理
        :param response: 
        :param spider: 
        :return: 
        """
        pass

    def process_spider_output(self,response, result, spider):
        """
        spider处理完成,返回时调用
        :param response:
        :param result:
        :param spider:
        :return: 必须返回包含 Request 或 Item 对象的可迭代对象(iterable)
        """
        return result

    def process_spider_exception(self,response, exception, spider):
        """
        异常调用
        :param response:
        :param exception:
        :param spider:
        :return: None,继续交给后续中间件处理异常;含 Response 或 Item 的可迭代对象(iterable),交给调度器或pipeline
        """
        return None


    def process_start_requests(self,start_requests, spider):
        """
        爬虫启动时调用
        :param start_requests:
        :param spider:
        :return: 包含 Request 对象的可迭代对象
        """
        return start_requests
class DownMiddleware1(object):
    def process_request(self, request, spider):
        """
        请求需要被下载时,经过所有下载器中间件的process_request调用
        :param request: 
        :param spider: 
        :return:  
            None,继续后续中间件去下载;
            Response对象,停止process_request的执行,开始执行process_response
            Request对象,停止中间件的执行,将Request重新调度器
            raise IgnoreRequest异常,停止process_request的执行,开始执行process_exception
        """
        pass



    def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
        """
        spider处理完成,返回时调用
        :param response:
        :param result:
        :param spider:
        :return: 
            Response 对象:转交给其他中间件process_response
            Request 对象:停止中间件,request会被重新调度下载
            raise IgnoreRequest 异常:调用Request.errback
        """
        print('response1')
        return response

    def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
        """
        当下载处理器(download handler)或 process_request() (下载中间件)抛出异常
        :param response:
        :param exception:
        :param spider:
        :return: 
            None:继续交给后续中间件处理异常;
            Response对象:停止后续process_exception方法
            Request对象:停止中间件,request将会被重新调用下载
        """
        return None

9. 自定制命令

  • 在spiders同级创建任意目录,如:commands
  • 在其中创建 crawlall.py 文件 (此处文件名就是自定义的命令) from scrapy.commands import ScrapyCommand from scrapy.utils.project import get_project_settings class Command(ScrapyCommand): requires_project = True def syntax(self): return '[options]' def short_desc(self): return 'Runs all of the spiders' def run(self, args, opts): spider_list = self.crawler_process.spiders.list() for name in spider_list: self.crawler_process.crawl(name, **opts.__dict__) self.crawler_process.start()
  • 在settings.py 中添加配置 COMMANDS_MODULE = '项目名称.目录名称'
  • 在项目目录执行命令:scrapy crawlall
import sys
from scrapy.cmdline import execute

if __name__ == '__main__':
    execute(["scrapy","github","--nolog"])

10. 自定义扩展

自定义扩展时,利用信号在指定位置注册制定操作

from scrapy import signals


class MyExtension(object):
    def __init__(self, value):
        self.value = value

    @classmethod
    def from_crawler(cls, crawler):
        val = crawler.settings.getint('MMMM')
        ext = cls(val)

        crawler.signals.connect(ext.spider_opened, signal=signals.spider_opened)
        crawler.signals.connect(ext.spider_closed, signal=signals.spider_closed)

        return ext

    def spider_opened(self, spider):
        print('open')

    def spider_closed(self, spider):
        print('close')

11. 避免重复访问

scrapy默认使用 scrapy.dupefilter.RFPDupeFilter 进行去重,相关配置有:

1 2 3

DUPEFILTER_CLASS = 'scrapy.dupefilter.RFPDupeFilter' DUPEFILTER_DEBUG = False JOBDIR = "保存范文记录的日志路径,如:/root/" # 最终路径为 /root/requests.seen

class RepeatUrl:
    def __init__(self):
        self.visited_url = set()

    @classmethod
    def from_settings(cls, settings):
        """
        初始化时,调用
        :param settings: 
        :return: 
        """
        return cls()

    def request_seen(self, request):
        """
        检测当前请求是否已经被访问过
        :param request: 
        :return: True表示已经访问过;False表示未访问过
        """
        if request.url in self.visited_url:
            return True
        self.visited_url.add(request.url)
        return False

    def open(self):
        """
        开始爬去请求时,调用
        :return: 
        """
        print('open replication')

    def close(self, reason):
        """
        结束爬虫爬取时,调用
        :param reason: 
        :return: 
        """
        print('close replication')

    def log(self, request, spider):
        """
        记录日志
        :param request: 
        :param spider: 
        :return: 
        """
        print('repeat', request.url)

12.其他

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

# Scrapy settings for step8_king project
#
# For simplicity, this file contains only settings considered important or
# commonly used. You can find more settings consulting the documentation:
#
#     http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html
#     http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
#     http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html

# 1. 爬虫名称
BOT_NAME = 'step8_king'

# 2. 爬虫应用路径
SPIDER_MODULES = ['step8_king.spiders']
NEWSPIDER_MODULE = 'step8_king.spiders'

# Crawl responsibly by identifying yourself (and your website) on the user-agent
# 3. 客户端 user-agent请求头
# USER_AGENT = 'step8_king (+http://www.yourdomain.com)'

# Obey robots.txt rules
# 4. 禁止爬虫配置
# ROBOTSTXT_OBEY = False

# Configure maximum concurrent requests performed by Scrapy (default: 16)
# 5. 并发请求数
# CONCURRENT_REQUESTS = 4

# Configure a delay for requests for the same website (default: 0)
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/settings.html#download-delay
# See also autothrottle settings and docs
# 6. 延迟下载秒数
# DOWNLOAD_DELAY = 2


# The download delay setting will honor only one of:
# 7. 单域名访问并发数,并且延迟下次秒数也应用在每个域名
# CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN = 2
# 单IP访问并发数,如果有值则忽略:CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_DOMAIN,并且延迟下次秒数也应用在每个IP
# CONCURRENT_REQUESTS_PER_IP = 3

# Disable cookies (enabled by default)
# 8. 是否支持cookie,cookiejar进行操作cookie
# COOKIES_ENABLED = True
# COOKIES_DEBUG = True

# Disable Telnet Console (enabled by default)
# 9. Telnet用于查看当前爬虫的信息,操作爬虫等...
#    使用telnet ip port ,然后通过命令操作
# TELNETCONSOLE_ENABLED = True
# TELNETCONSOLE_HOST = '127.0.0.1'
# TELNETCONSOLE_PORT = [6023,]


# 10. 默认请求头
# Override the default request headers:
# DEFAULT_REQUEST_HEADERS = {
#     'Accept': 'text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8',
#     'Accept-Language': 'en',
# }


# Configure item pipelines
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/item-pipeline.html
# 11. 定义pipeline处理请求
# ITEM_PIPELINES = {
#    'step8_king.pipelines.JsonPipeline': 700,
#    'step8_king.pipelines.FilePipeline': 500,
# }



# 12. 自定义扩展,基于信号进行调用
# Enable or disable extensions
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/extensions.html
# EXTENSIONS = {
#     # 'step8_king.extensions.MyExtension': 500,
# }


# 13. 爬虫允许的最大深度,可以通过meta查看当前深度;0表示无深度
# DEPTH_LIMIT = 3

# 14. 爬取时,0表示深度优先Lifo(默认);1表示广度优先FiFo

# 后进先出,深度优先
# DEPTH_PRIORITY = 0
# SCHEDULER_DISK_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.PickleLifoDiskQueue'
# SCHEDULER_MEMORY_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.LifoMemoryQueue'
# 先进先出,广度优先

# DEPTH_PRIORITY = 1
# SCHEDULER_DISK_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.PickleFifoDiskQueue'
# SCHEDULER_MEMORY_QUEUE = 'scrapy.squeue.FifoMemoryQueue'

# 15. 调度器队列
# SCHEDULER = 'scrapy.core.scheduler.Scheduler'
# from scrapy.core.scheduler import Scheduler


# 16. 访问URL去重
# DUPEFILTER_CLASS = 'step8_king.duplication.RepeatUrl'


# Enable and configure the AutoThrottle extension (disabled by default)
# See http://doc.scrapy.org/en/latest/topics/autothrottle.html

"""
17. 自动限速算法
    from scrapy.contrib.throttle import AutoThrottle
    自动限速设置
    1. 获取最小延迟 DOWNLOAD_DELAY
    2. 获取最大延迟 AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY
    3. 设置初始下载延迟 AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY
    4. 当请求下载完成后,获取其"连接"时间 latency,即:请求连接到接受到响应头之间的时间
    5. 用于计算的... AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY
    target_delay = latency / self.target_concurrency
    new_delay = (slot.delay + target_delay) / 2.0 # 表示上一次的延迟时间
    new_delay = max(target_delay, new_delay)
    new_delay = min(max(self.mindelay, new_delay), self.maxdelay)
    slot.delay = new_delay
"""

# 开始自动限速
# AUTOTHROTTLE_ENABLED = True
# The initial download delay
# 初始下载延迟
# AUTOTHROTTLE_START_DELAY = 5
# The maximum download delay to be set in case of high latencies
# 最大下载延迟
# AUTOTHROTTLE_MAX_DELAY = 10
# The average number of requests Scrapy should be sending in parallel to each remote server
# 平均每秒并发数
# AUTOTHROTTLE_TARGET_CONCURRENCY = 1.0

# Enable showing throttling stats for every response received:
# 是否显示
# AUTOTHROTTLE_DEBUG = True

# Enable and configure HTTP caching (disabled by default)
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html#httpcache-middleware-settings


"""
18. 启用缓存
    目的用于将已经发送的请求或相应缓存下来,以便以后使用
    
    from scrapy.downloadermiddlewares.httpcache import HttpCacheMiddleware
    from scrapy.extensions.httpcache import DummyPolicy
    from scrapy.extensions.httpcache import FilesystemCacheStorage
"""
# 是否启用缓存策略
# HTTPCACHE_ENABLED = True

# 缓存策略:所有请求均缓存,下次在请求直接访问原来的缓存即可
# HTTPCACHE_POLICY = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.DummyPolicy"
# 缓存策略:根据Http响应头:Cache-Control、Last-Modified 等进行缓存的策略
# HTTPCACHE_POLICY = "scrapy.extensions.httpcache.RFC2616Policy"

# 缓存超时时间
# HTTPCACHE_EXPIRATION_SECS = 0

# 缓存保存路径
# HTTPCACHE_DIR = 'httpcache'

# 缓存忽略的Http状态码
# HTTPCACHE_IGNORE_HTTP_CODES = []

# 缓存存储的插件
# HTTPCACHE_STORAGE = 'scrapy.extensions.httpcache.FilesystemCacheStorage'


"""
19. 代理,需要在环境变量中设置
    from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy import HttpProxyMiddleware
    
    方式一:使用默认
        os.environ
        {
            http_proxy:http://root:woshiniba@192.168.11.11:9999/
            https_proxy:http://192.168.11.11:9999/
        }
    方式二:使用自定义下载中间件
    
    def to_bytes(text, encoding=None, errors='strict'):
        if isinstance(text, bytes):
            return text
        if not isinstance(text, six.string_types):
            raise TypeError('to_bytes must receive a unicode, str or bytes '
                            'object, got %s' % type(text).__name__)
        if encoding is None:
            encoding = 'utf-8'
        return text.encode(encoding, errors)
        
    class ProxyMiddleware(object):
        def process_request(self, request, spider):
            PROXIES = [
                {'ip_port': '111.11.228.75:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '120.198.243.22:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '111.8.60.9:8123', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '101.71.27.120:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '122.96.59.104:80', 'user_pass': ''},
                {'ip_port': '122.224.249.122:8088', 'user_pass': ''},
            ]
            proxy = random.choice(PROXIES)
            if proxy['user_pass'] is not None:
                request.meta['proxy'] = to_bytes("http://%s" % proxy['ip_port'])
                encoded_user_pass = base64.encodestring(to_bytes(proxy['user_pass']))
                request.headers['Proxy-Authorization'] = to_bytes('Basic ' + encoded_user_pass)
                print "**************ProxyMiddleware have pass************" + proxy['ip_port']
            else:
                print "**************ProxyMiddleware no pass************" + proxy['ip_port']
                request.meta['proxy'] = to_bytes("http://%s" % proxy['ip_port'])
    
    DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
       'step8_king.middlewares.ProxyMiddleware': 500,
    }
    
"""

"""
20. Https访问
    Https访问时有两种情况:
    1. 要爬取网站使用的可信任证书(默认支持)
        DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory"
        DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory.ScrapyClientContextFactory"
        
    2. 要爬取网站使用的自定义证书
        DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY = "scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory"
        DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY = "step8_king.https.MySSLFactory"
        
        # https.py
        from scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory import ScrapyClientContextFactory
        from twisted.internet.ssl import (optionsForClientTLS, CertificateOptions, PrivateCertificate)
        
        class MySSLFactory(ScrapyClientContextFactory):
            def getCertificateOptions(self):
                from OpenSSL import crypto
                v1 = crypto.load_privatekey(crypto.FILETYPE_PEM, open('/Users/wupeiqi/client.key.unsecure', mode='r').read())
                v2 = crypto.load_certificate(crypto.FILETYPE_PEM, open('/Users/wupeiqi/client.pem', mode='r').read())
                return CertificateOptions(
                    privateKey=v1,  # pKey对象
                    certificate=v2,  # X509对象
                    verify=False,
                    method=getattr(self, 'method', getattr(self, '_ssl_method', None))
                )
    其他:
        相关类
            scrapy.core.downloader.handlers.http.HttpDownloadHandler
            scrapy.core.downloader.webclient.ScrapyHTTPClientFactory
            scrapy.core.downloader.contextfactory.ScrapyClientContextFactory
        相关配置
            DOWNLOADER_HTTPCLIENTFACTORY
            DOWNLOADER_CLIENTCONTEXTFACTORY

"""



"""
21. 爬虫中间件
    class SpiderMiddleware(object):

        def process_spider_input(self,response, spider):
            '''
            下载完成,执行,然后交给parse处理
            :param response: 
            :param spider: 
            :return: 
            '''
            pass
    
        def process_spider_output(self,response, result, spider):
            '''
            spider处理完成,返回时调用
            :param response:
            :param result:
            :param spider:
            :return: 必须返回包含 Request 或 Item 对象的可迭代对象(iterable)
            '''
            return result
    
        def process_spider_exception(self,response, exception, spider):
            '''
            异常调用
            :param response:
            :param exception:
            :param spider:
            :return: None,继续交给后续中间件处理异常;含 Response 或 Item 的可迭代对象(iterable),交给调度器或pipeline
            '''
            return None
    
    
        def process_start_requests(self,start_requests, spider):
            '''
            爬虫启动时调用
            :param start_requests:
            :param spider:
            :return: 包含 Request 对象的可迭代对象
            '''
            return start_requests
    
    内置爬虫中间件:
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.httperror.HttpErrorMiddleware': 50,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.offsite.OffsiteMiddleware': 500,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.referer.RefererMiddleware': 700,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.urllength.UrlLengthMiddleware': 800,
        'scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.depth.DepthMiddleware': 900,

"""
# from scrapy.contrib.spidermiddleware.referer import RefererMiddleware
# Enable or disable spider middlewares
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/spider-middleware.html
SPIDER_MIDDLEWARES = {
   # 'step8_king.middlewares.SpiderMiddleware': 543,
}


"""
22. 下载中间件
    class DownMiddleware1(object):
        def process_request(self, request, spider):
            '''
            请求需要被下载时,经过所有下载器中间件的process_request调用
            :param request:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                None,继续后续中间件去下载;
                Response对象,停止process_request的执行,开始执行process_response
                Request对象,停止中间件的执行,将Request重新调度器
                raise IgnoreRequest异常,停止process_request的执行,开始执行process_exception
            '''
            pass
    
    
    
        def process_response(self, request, response, spider):
            '''
            spider处理完成,返回时调用
            :param response:
            :param result:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                Response 对象:转交给其他中间件process_response
                Request 对象:停止中间件,request会被重新调度下载
                raise IgnoreRequest 异常:调用Request.errback
            '''
            print('response1')
            return response
    
        def process_exception(self, request, exception, spider):
            '''
            当下载处理器(download handler)或 process_request() (下载中间件)抛出异常
            :param response:
            :param exception:
            :param spider:
            :return:
                None:继续交给后续中间件处理异常;
                Response对象:停止后续process_exception方法
                Request对象:停止中间件,request将会被重新调用下载
            '''
            return None

    
    默认下载中间件
    {
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.robotstxt.RobotsTxtMiddleware': 100,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpauth.HttpAuthMiddleware': 300,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.downloadtimeout.DownloadTimeoutMiddleware': 350,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.useragent.UserAgentMiddleware': 400,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.retry.RetryMiddleware': 500,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.defaultheaders.DefaultHeadersMiddleware': 550,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.redirect.MetaRefreshMiddleware': 580,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpcompression.HttpCompressionMiddleware': 590,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.redirect.RedirectMiddleware': 600,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.cookies.CookiesMiddleware': 700,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpproxy.HttpProxyMiddleware': 750,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.chunked.ChunkedTransferMiddleware': 830,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.stats.DownloaderStats': 850,
        'scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpcache.HttpCacheMiddleware': 900,
    }

"""
# from scrapy.contrib.downloadermiddleware.httpauth import HttpAuthMiddleware
# Enable or disable downloader middlewares
# See http://scrapy.readthedocs.org/en/latest/topics/downloader-middleware.html
# DOWNLOADER_MIDDLEWARES = {
#    'step8_king.middlewares.DownMiddleware1': 100,
#    'step8_king.middlewares.DownMiddleware2': 500,
# }

13. 大文件下载

示例文件:猛击下载

14.TinyScrapy

from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
from twisted.internet import defer

url_list = ['http://www.bing.com', 'http://www.baidu.com', ]


def callback(arg):
    print('回来一个', arg)


defer_list = []
for url in url_list:
    ret = getPage(bytes(url, encoding='utf8'))
    ret.addCallback(callback)
    defer_list.append(ret)


def stop(arg):
    print('已经全部现在完毕', arg)
    reactor.stop()


d = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
d.addBoth(stop)

reactor.run()
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
from twisted.internet import defer


@defer.inlineCallbacks
def task(url):
    ret = getPage(bytes(url, encoding='utf8'))
    ret.addCallback(callback)
    yield ret


def callback(arg):
    print('回来一个', arg)


url_list = ['http://www.bing.com', 'http://www.baidu.com', ]
defer_list = []
for url in url_list:
    ret = task(url)
    defer_list.append(ret)


def stop(arg):
    print('已经全部现在完毕', arg)
    reactor.stop()


d = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
d.addBoth(stop)
reactor.run()
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.internet import defer
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor
import threading


def _next_request():
    _next_request_from_scheduler()


def _next_request_from_scheduler():
    ret = getPage(bytes('http://www.chouti.com', encoding='utf8'))
    ret.addCallback(callback)
    ret.addCallback(lambda _: reactor.callLater(0, _next_request))


_closewait = None

@defer.inlineCallbacks
def engine_start():
    global _closewait
    _closewait = defer.Deferred()
    yield _closewait


@defer.inlineCallbacks
def task(url):
    reactor.callLater(0, _next_request)
    yield engine_start()


counter = 0
def callback(arg):
    global counter
    counter +=1
    if counter == 10:
        _closewait.callback(None)
    print('one', len(arg))


def stop(arg):
    print('all done', arg)
    reactor.stop()


if __name__ == '__main__':
    url = 'http://www.cnblogs.com'

    defer_list = []
    deferObj = task(url)
    defer_list.append(deferObj)

    v = defer.DeferredList(defer_list)
    v.addBoth(stop)
    reactor.run()
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
from twisted.web.client import getPage, defer
from twisted.internet import reactor
import queue


class Response(object):
    def __init__(self, body, request):
        self.body = body
        self.request = request
        self.url = request.url

    @property
    def text(self):
        return self.body.decode('utf-8')


class Request(object):
    def __init__(self, url, callback=None):
        self.url = url
        self.callback = callback


class Scheduler(object):
    def __init__(self, engine):
        self.q = queue.Queue()
        self.engine = engine

    def enqueue_request(self, request):
        self.q.put(request)

    def next_request(self):
        try:
            req = self.q.get(block=False)
        except Exception as e:
            req = None

        return req

    def size(self):
        return self.q.qsize()


class ExecutionEngine(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._closewait = None
        self.running = True
        self.start_requests = None
        self.scheduler = Scheduler(self)

        self.inprogress = set()

    def check_empty(self, response):
        if not self.running:
            self._closewait.callback('......')

    def _next_request(self):
        while self.start_requests:
            try:
                request = next(self.start_requests)
            except StopIteration:
                self.start_requests = None
            else:
                self.scheduler.enqueue_request(request)

        while len(self.inprogress) < 5 and self.scheduler.size() > 0:  # 最大并发数为5

            request = self.scheduler.next_request()
            if not request:
                break

            self.inprogress.add(request)
            d = getPage(bytes(request.url, encoding='utf-8'))
            d.addBoth(self._handle_downloader_output, request)
            d.addBoth(lambda x, req: self.inprogress.remove(req), request)
            d.addBoth(lambda x: self._next_request())

        if len(self.inprogress) == 0 and self.scheduler.size() == 0:
            self._closewait.callback(None)

    def _handle_downloader_output(self, body, request):
        """
        获取内容,执行回调函数,并且把回调函数中的返回值获取,并添加到队列中
        :param response: 
        :param request: 
        :return: 
        """
        import types

        response = Response(body, request)
        func = request.callback or self.spider.parse
        gen = func(response)
        if isinstance(gen, types.GeneratorType):
            for req in gen:
                self.scheduler.enqueue_request(req)

    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def start(self):
        self._closewait = defer.Deferred()
        yield self._closewait

    def open_spider(self, spider, start_requests):
        self.start_requests = start_requests
        self.spider = spider
        reactor.callLater(0, self._next_request)


class Crawler(object):
    def __init__(self, spidercls):
        self.spidercls = spidercls

        self.spider = None
        self.engine = None

    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def crawl(self):
        self.engine = ExecutionEngine()
        self.spider = self.spidercls()
        start_requests = iter(self.spider.start_requests())
        start_requests = iter(start_requests)
        self.engine.open_spider(self.spider, start_requests)
        yield self.engine.start()


class CrawlerProcess(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self._active = set()
        self.crawlers = set()

    def crawl(self, spidercls, *args, **kwargs):
        crawler = Crawler(spidercls)

        self.crawlers.add(crawler)
        d = crawler.crawl(*args, **kwargs)
        self._active.add(d)
        return d

    def start(self):
        dl = defer.DeferredList(self._active)
        dl.addBoth(self._stop_reactor)
        reactor.run()

    def _stop_reactor(self, _=None):
        reactor.stop()


class Spider(object):
    def start_requests(self):
        for url in self.start_urls:
            yield Request(url)


class ChoutiSpider(Spider):
    name = "chouti"
    start_urls = [
        'http://dig.chouti.com/',
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        print(response.text)


class CnblogsSpider(Spider):
    name = "cnblogs"
    start_urls = [
        'http://www.cnblogs.com/',
    ]

    def parse(self, response):
        print(response.text)


if __name__ == '__main__':

    spider_cls_list = [ChoutiSpider, CnblogsSpider]

    crawler_process = CrawlerProcess()
    for spider_cls in spider_cls_list:
        crawler_process.crawl(spider_cls)

    crawler_process.start()
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-
import types
from twisted.internet import defer
from twisted.web.client import getPage
from twisted.internet import reactor



class Request(object):
    def __init__(self, url, callback):
        self.url = url
        self.callback = callback
        self.priority = 0


class HttpResponse(object):
    def __init__(self, content, request):
        self.content = content
        self.request = request


class ChouTiSpider(object):

    def start_requests(self):
        url_list = ['http://www.cnblogs.com/', 'http://www.bing.com']
        for url in url_list:
            yield Request(url=url, callback=self.parse)

    def parse(self, response):
        print(response.request.url)
        # yield Request(url="http://www.baidu.com", callback=self.parse)




from queue import Queue
Q = Queue()


class CallLaterOnce(object):
    def __init__(self, func, *a, **kw):
        self._func = func
        self._a = a
        self._kw = kw
        self._call = None

    def schedule(self, delay=0):
        if self._call is None:
            self._call = reactor.callLater(delay, self)

    def cancel(self):
        if self._call:
            self._call.cancel()

    def __call__(self):
        self._call = None
        return self._func(*self._a, **self._kw)


class Engine(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.nextcall = None
        self.crawlling = []
        self.max = 5
        self._closewait = None

    def get_response(self,content, request):
        response = HttpResponse(content, request)
        gen = request.callback(response)
        if isinstance(gen, types.GeneratorType):
            for req in gen:
                req.priority = request.priority + 1
                Q.put(req)


    def rm_crawlling(self,response,d):
        self.crawlling.remove(d)

    def _next_request(self,spider):
        if Q.qsize() == 0 and len(self.crawlling) == 0:
            self._closewait.callback(None)

        if len(self.crawlling) >= 5:
            return
        while len(self.crawlling) < 5:
            try:
                req = Q.get(block=False)
            except Exception as e:
                req = None
            if not req:
                return
            d = getPage(req.url.encode('utf-8'))
            self.crawlling.append(d)
            d.addCallback(self.get_response, req)
            d.addCallback(self.rm_crawlling,d)
            d.addCallback(lambda _: self.nextcall.schedule())


    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def crawl(self):
        spider = ChouTiSpider()
        start_requests = iter(spider.start_requests())
        flag = True
        while flag:
            try:
                req = next(start_requests)
                Q.put(req)
            except StopIteration as e:
                flag = False

        self.nextcall = CallLaterOnce(self._next_request,spider)
        self.nextcall.schedule()

        self._closewait = defer.Deferred()
        yield self._closewait

    @defer.inlineCallbacks
    def pp(self):
        yield self.crawl()

_active = set()
obj = Engine()
d = obj.crawl()
_active.add(d)

li = defer.DeferredList(_active)
li.addBoth(lambda _,*a,**kw: reactor.stop())

reactor.run()

http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/articles/6229292.html

http://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/articles/5354900.html

https://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/articles/6912807.html

https://www.cnblogs.com/wupeiqi/articles/6698151.html

https://www.cnblogs.com/hyit/category/1117750.html

更多请参见Scrapy文档:http://scrapy-chs.readthedocs.io/zh_CN/latest/index.html

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