[Linux] 使用openssl实现RSA非对称加密

简单定义:公钥和私钥,加密和解密使用的是两个不同的密钥,所以是非对称

系统:ubuntu 14.04

软件:openssl java php

生成公钥私钥

使用命令生成私钥:

openssl genrsa -out rsa_private_key.pem 1024

参数:genrsa 生成密钥 -out 输出到文件 rsa_private_key.pem 文件名 1024 长度

从私钥中提取公钥:

openssl rsa -in rsa_private_key.pem -pubout -out rsa_public_key.pem

参数: rsa 提取公钥 -in 从文件中读入 rsa_private_key.pem 文件名 -pubout 输出 -out 到文件 rsa_public_key.pem 文件名

shell加解密

新建一个readme.txt 内容是taoshihan

使用公钥加密:

openssl rsautl -encrypt -in readme.txt -inkey rsa_public_key.pem -pubin -out hello.en 

参数: rsautl 加解密 -encrypt 加密 -in 从文件输入 readme.txt 文件名 -inkey 输入的密钥 rsa_public_key.pem 上一步生成的公钥 -pubin 表名输入是公钥文件 -out输出到文件 hello.en 输出文件名

使用私钥解密:

openssl rsautl -decrypt -in hello.en -inkey rsa_private_key.pem -out hello.de

参数: -decrypt 解密 -in 从文件输入 hello.en 上一步生成的加密文件 -inkey 输入的密钥 rsa_private_key.pem 上一步生成的私钥 -out输出到文件 hello.de 输出的文件名

cat hello.de // taoshihan

php加解密

$profile="taoshihan";
echo "加密前:{$profile}\n";
//公钥加密
$public_key=file_get_contents("rsa_public_key.pem");
$pub_key = openssl_pkey_get_public($public_key); 
openssl_public_encrypt($profile,$encrypted,$pub_key);
$encrypted=base64_encode($encrypted);//因为加密后是乱码,所以base64一下
echo "加密后:\n";
echo $encrypted."\n";

//私钥解密
$private_key=file_get_contents("rsa_private_key.pem");
$pi_key =  openssl_pkey_get_private($private_key); 
openssl_private_decrypt(base64_decode($encrypted),$decrypted,$pi_key);
echo "解密后:\n";
echo $decrypted."\n";

新建rsa.php的文件

执行后结果:

加密前:taoshihan
加密后:
ShjsdlTceurVfO0ocENqHGl9RXrQRm3vuprqchhuVOdX1ldJC2O2sIvjjpQfPWOkF1WA+tqdyIl9YJQ0/2DqAp4zaqI1TCNsXduGn2iUZQ88g7B5eSI7r/iWKcX527pLe95EBvFMw/D65tlYscI5RClcp3KrOw2fqDQZ3D3nKAI=
解密后:
taoshihan

java加解密:

准备jar包 bcprov-ext-jdk15on-156.jar

wget http://www.bouncycastle.org/download/bcprov-ext-jdk15on-156.jar

RSAEncrypt.java 文件

import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.FileInputStream;  
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.security.InvalidKeyException;
import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.KeyPair;
import java.security.KeyPairGenerator;
import java.security.NoSuchAlgorithmException;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.security.interfaces.RSAPrivateKey;
import java.security.interfaces.RSAPublicKey;
import java.security.spec.InvalidKeySpecException;
import java.security.spec.PKCS8EncodedKeySpec;
import java.security.spec.X509EncodedKeySpec;
import java.security.KeyFactory;
import java.security.interfaces.RSAPrivateKey;
import java.security.spec.RSAPrivateKeySpec;

import org.bouncycastle.asn1.ASN1Sequence;
import org.bouncycastle.asn1.pkcs.RSAPrivateKeyStructure;

import javax.crypto.BadPaddingException;
import javax.crypto.Cipher;
import javax.crypto.IllegalBlockSizeException;
import javax.crypto.NoSuchPaddingException;

import org.bouncycastle.jce.provider.BouncyCastleProvider;

import sun.misc.BASE64Decoder;
import sun.misc.BASE64Encoder;

public class RSAEncrypt {
    /**
     * 私钥
     */
    private RSAPrivateKey privateKey;

    /**
     * 公钥
     */
    private RSAPublicKey publicKey;
    
    /**
     * 字节数据转字符串专用集合
     */
    private static final char[] HEX_CHAR= {'0', '1', '2', '3', '4', '5', '6', '7', '8', '9', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'};
    

    /**
     * 获取私钥
     * @return 当前的私钥对象
     */
    public RSAPrivateKey getPrivateKey() {
        return privateKey;
    }

    /**
     * 获取公钥
     * @return 当前的公钥对象
     */
    public RSAPublicKey getPublicKey() {
        return publicKey;
    }

    /**
     * 随机生成密钥对
     */
    public void genKeyPair(){
        KeyPairGenerator keyPairGen= null;
        try {
            keyPairGen= KeyPairGenerator.getInstance("RSA");
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        keyPairGen.initialize(1024, new SecureRandom());
        KeyPair keyPair= keyPairGen.generateKeyPair();
        this.privateKey= (RSAPrivateKey) keyPair.getPrivate();
        this.publicKey= (RSAPublicKey) keyPair.getPublic();
    }

    /**
     * 从文件中输入流中加载公钥
     * @param in 公钥输入流
     * @throws Exception 加载公钥时产生的异常
     */
    public void loadPublicKey(InputStream in) throws Exception{
        try {
            BufferedReader br= new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in));
            String readLine= null;
            StringBuilder sb= new StringBuilder();
            while((readLine= br.readLine())!=null){
                if(readLine.charAt(0)=='-'){
                    continue;
                }else{
                    sb.append(readLine);
                    sb.append('\r');
                }
            }
            loadPublicKey(sb.toString());
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new Exception("公钥数据流读取错误");
        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
            throw new Exception("公钥输入流为空");
        }
    }


    /**
     * 从字符串中加载公钥
     * @param publicKeyStr 公钥数据字符串
     * @throws Exception 加载公钥时产生的异常
     */
    public void loadPublicKey(String publicKeyStr) throws Exception{
        try {
            BASE64Decoder base64Decoder= new BASE64Decoder();
            byte[] buffer= base64Decoder.decodeBuffer(publicKeyStr);
            KeyFactory keyFactory= KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
            X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec= new X509EncodedKeySpec(buffer);
            this.publicKey= (RSAPublicKey) keyFactory.generatePublic(keySpec);
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            throw new Exception("无此算法");
        } catch (InvalidKeySpecException e) {
            throw new Exception("公钥非法");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new Exception("公钥数据内容读取错误");
        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
            throw new Exception("公钥数据为空");
        }
    }

    /**
     * 从文件中加载私钥
     * @param keyFileName 私钥文件名
     * @return 是否成功
     * @throws Exception 
     */
    public void loadPrivateKey(InputStream in) throws Exception{
        try {
            BufferedReader br= new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(in));
            String readLine= null;
            StringBuilder sb= new StringBuilder();
            while((readLine= br.readLine())!=null){
                if(readLine.charAt(0)=='-'){
                    continue;
                }else{
                    sb.append(readLine);
                    sb.append('\r');
                }
            }
            loadPrivateKey(sb.toString());
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new Exception("私钥数据读取错误");
        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
            throw new Exception("私钥输入流为空");
        }
    }

    public void loadPrivateKey(String privateKeyStr) throws Exception{
        try {
            BASE64Decoder base64Decoder= new BASE64Decoder();
            byte[] buffer= base64Decoder.decodeBuffer(privateKeyStr);

            RSAPrivateKeyStructure asn1PrivKey = new RSAPrivateKeyStructure((ASN1Sequence) ASN1Sequence.fromByteArray(buffer));
            RSAPrivateKeySpec rsaPrivKeySpec = new RSAPrivateKeySpec(asn1PrivKey.getModulus(), asn1PrivKey.getPrivateExponent());
            KeyFactory keyFactory= KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
            RSAPrivateKey  priKey=(RSAPrivateKey) keyFactory.generatePrivate(rsaPrivKeySpec);
            this.privateKey=priKey;

            // PKCS8EncodedKeySpec keySpec= new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(buffer);
            // KeyFactory keyFactory= KeyFactory.getInstance("RSA");
            //this.privateKey= (RSAPrivateKey) keyFactory.generatePrivate(keySpec);
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            throw new Exception("无此算法");
        } catch (InvalidKeySpecException e) {
            throw new Exception("私钥非法");
        } catch (IOException e) {
            throw new Exception("私钥数据内容读取错误");
        } catch (NullPointerException e) {
            throw new Exception("私钥数据为空");
        }
    }

    /**
     * 加密过程
     * @param publicKey 公钥
     * @param plainTextData 明文数据
     * @return
     * @throws Exception 加密过程中的异常信息
     */
    public byte[] encrypt(RSAPublicKey publicKey, byte[] plainTextData) throws Exception{
        if(publicKey== null){
            throw new Exception("加密公钥为空, 请设置");
        }
        Cipher cipher= null;
        try {
            cipher= Cipher.getInstance("RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding", new BouncyCastleProvider());
            cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, publicKey);
            byte[] output= cipher.doFinal(plainTextData);
            return output;
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            throw new Exception("无此加密算法");
        } catch (NoSuchPaddingException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            return null;
        }catch (InvalidKeyException e) {
            throw new Exception("加密公钥非法,请检查");
        } catch (IllegalBlockSizeException e) {
            throw new Exception("明文长度非法");
        } catch (BadPaddingException e) {
            throw new Exception("明文数据已损坏");
        }
    }

    /**
     * 解密过程
     * @param privateKey 私钥
     * @param cipherData 密文数据
     * @return 明文
     * @throws Exception 解密过程中的异常信息
     */
    public byte[] decrypt(RSAPrivateKey privateKey, byte[] cipherData) throws Exception{
        if (privateKey== null){
            throw new Exception("解密私钥为空, 请设置");
        }
        Cipher cipher= null;
        try {
            cipher= Cipher.getInstance("RSA/ECB/PKCS1Padding", new BouncyCastleProvider());
            cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, privateKey);
            byte[] output= cipher.doFinal(cipherData);
            return output;
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            throw new Exception("无此解密算法");
        } catch (NoSuchPaddingException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            return null;
        }catch (InvalidKeyException e) {
            throw new Exception("解密私钥非法,请检查");
        } catch (IllegalBlockSizeException e) {
            throw new Exception("密文长度非法");
        } catch (BadPaddingException e) {
            throw new Exception("密文数据已损坏");
        }        
    }

    
    /**
     * 字节数据转十六进制字符串
     * @param data 输入数据
     * @return 十六进制内容
     */
    public static String byteArrayToString(byte[] data){
        StringBuilder stringBuilder= new StringBuilder();
        for (int i=0; i<data.length; i++){
            //取出字节的高四位 作为索引得到相应的十六进制标识符 注意无符号右移
            stringBuilder.append(HEX_CHAR[(data[i] & 0xf0)>>> 4]);
            //取出字节的低四位 作为索引得到相应的十六进制标识符
            stringBuilder.append(HEX_CHAR[(data[i] & 0x0f)]);
            if (i<data.length-1){
                stringBuilder.append(' ');
            }
        }
        return stringBuilder.toString();
    }


    public static void main(String[] args){
        RSAEncrypt rsaEncrypt= new RSAEncrypt();
        //加载公钥
        try {
            rsaEncrypt.loadPublicKey(new FileInputStream("rsa_public_key.pem"));
            System.out.println("加载公钥成功");
        } catch (Exception e) {
            System.err.println(e.getMessage());
            System.err.println("加载公钥失败");
        }

        //加载私钥
        try {
            rsaEncrypt.loadPrivateKey(new FileInputStream("rsa_private_key.pem"));
            System.out.println("加载私钥成功");
        } catch (Exception e) {
            System.err.println(e.getMessage());
            System.err.println("加载私钥失败");
        }

        //测试字符串
        String encryptStr= "taoshihan";
        System.out.println("加密前:");
        System.out.println(encryptStr);
        try {
            //加密
            byte[] cipher = rsaEncrypt.encrypt(rsaEncrypt.getPublicKey(), encryptStr.getBytes());
            //解密
            byte[] plainText = rsaEncrypt.decrypt(rsaEncrypt.getPrivateKey(), cipher);
            BASE64Encoder encode = new BASE64Encoder(); 
            String buffer= encode.encode(cipher);
            System.out.println("加密后:");
            System.out.println(new String(buffer));
            System.out.println("解密后:");
            System.out.println(new String(plainText));
        } catch (Exception e) {
            System.err.println(e.getMessage());
        }
    }
}

带包编译和执行

javac -cp bcprov-ext-jdk15on-156.jar RSAEncrypt.java 
java -cp .:bcprov-ext-jdk15on-156.jar RSAEncrypt

执行结果:

加载公钥成功
加载私钥成功
加密前:
taoshihan
加密后:
Tt1p5XnamZkkVjGn1cVgEIb7U+CP27Xw93JQQUZyc2Up/rJL4Mx+dA8mxkva1a/I64sUTb7QD//8
gbss4bZY/DHrLityTt2/QjjQUFYD5/Aa1m1QKUBulWY4/C5so5dm6wrRnjolsIFUbY+RfH4B6hp1
taQGBRDum/xEX6OsJ9I=
解密后:
taoshihan

shell使用公钥加密,php使用私钥解密

shell:

openssl rsautl -encrypt -in readme.txt -inkey rsa_public_key.pem -pubin|base64

加密后的字符串

lNJ50ODiofcp+adrtAI943HOsjdDTg3UMfUkt0NI7DhUjxCM+NAlBH08WVQRtYK9W8ZoQOta3QH6
PzmJT4WsI0yfNGiUWYgoYgSOtPURSQMbaCt3DM2Y5mEKqzbKLrhN+S+9Jrtmef1VuBUes8wN6rOD
UHxI+vDwQ+utRJRRo9U=

php:

<?php
$encrypted="lNJ50ODiofcp+adrtAI943HOsjdDTg3UMfUkt0NI7DhUjxCM+NAlBH08WVQRtYK9W8ZoQOta3QH6
PzmJT4WsI0yfNGiUWYgoYgSOtPURSQMbaCt3DM2Y5mEKqzbKLrhN+S+9Jrtmef1VuBUes8wN6rOD
UHxI+vDwQ+utRJRRo9U=";
echo $encrypted."\n";

//私钥解密
$private_key=file_get_contents("rsa_private_key.pem");
$pi_key =  openssl_pkey_get_private($private_key); 
openssl_private_decrypt(base64_decode($encrypted),$decrypted,$pi_key);
echo "解密后:\n";
echo $decrypted."\n";

执行结果:

lNJ50ODiofcp+adrtAI943HOsjdDTg3UMfUkt0NI7DhUjxCM+NAlBH08WVQRtYK9W8ZoQOta3QH6
PzmJT4WsI0yfNGiUWYgoYgSOtPURSQMbaCt3DM2Y5mEKqzbKLrhN+S+9Jrtmef1VuBUes8wN6rOD
UHxI+vDwQ+utRJRRo9U=
解密后:
taoshihan

java使用公钥加密,php解密:

拿上一步java生成的加密后字符串

<?php
$encrypted="Tt1p5XnamZkkVjGn1cVgEIb7U+CP27Xw93JQQUZyc2Up/rJL4Mx+dA8mxkva1a/I64sUTb7QD//8
gbss4bZY/DHrLityTt2/QjjQUFYD5/Aa1m1QKUBulWY4/C5so5dm6wrRnjolsIFUbY+RfH4B6hp1
taQGBRDum/xEX6OsJ9I=";
echo $encrypted."\n";

//私钥解密
$private_key=file_get_contents("rsa_private_key.pem");
$pi_key =  openssl_pkey_get_private($private_key); 
openssl_private_decrypt(base64_decode($encrypted),$decrypted,$pi_key);
echo "解密后:\n";
echo $decrypted."\n";

执行结果:

Tt1p5XnamZkkVjGn1cVgEIb7U+CP27Xw93JQQUZyc2Up/rJL4Mx+dA8mxkva1a/I64sUTb7QD//8
gbss4bZY/DHrLityTt2/QjjQUFYD5/Aa1m1QKUBulWY4/C5so5dm6wrRnjolsIFUbY+RfH4B6hp1
taQGBRDum/xEX6OsJ9I=
解密后:
taoshihan

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