由约翰·梅洛小10月27，2020 4：10上午 PT
事实上，在 Clario 认定为可收集的 32 件个人信息中，只有 7 件没有被 Facebook 抓住——身高、体重、母亲的婚前姓、银行账户详细信息、工资、出生国、过敏/不耐受性以及健康和生活方式信息。
总部位于德国柏林的地点营销解决方案制造商Uberall的市场洞察副总裁格雷格 斯特林（Greg Sterling）解释道，从一开始，Facebook就通过提供基于人的营销，与谷歌区分开——这些受众和受众群体的详细档案可以作为目标。
并非所有社交媒体都贪婪于数据。Clario 分析显示，两个热门平台 TikTok（14.71%）和 WhatsApp（11.76%）排在数据抓取者列表的底部。具有讽刺意味的是，TikTok在美国的存在受到了特朗普政府的威胁，因为该公司收集了有关美国人的数据。
Miller 补充说："亚马逊有意准备做的，是识别直接导致业务指针交互类型的质量数据，而与其他收集 PB 字节数量数据的人相比，这些数据有朝一日可能有意义。
"现代数据隐私的基本原则之一是尽可能少地收集信息，并尽可能少地存储信息，"圣地亚哥身份盗窃资源中心的首席运营官 James E. Lee解释道。
他告诉 TechNewsWorld ：这是欧洲隐理方法的基本原则之一，通常被描述为 ' 设计上的隐私 ' 。"由于州隐私法，美国目前正在认真讨论这个问题，但在企业积极实践这一原则之前，我们还有很长的路要走。
尽管像 GDPR 这样的法律是善意的，但对于许多消费者来说，这些法律可能仍然不足。
Social Media Companies Top Data Grabber List
By John P. Mello Jr. Oct 27, 2020 4:10 AM PT
When it comes to an appetite for data, social media outfits are the most voracious, according to a recent study released this month by cybersecurity company Clario Tech.
The analysis of nearly 50 of the world's biggest brands found that Facebook collects more than 70 percent of all the data it can collect legally about someone using its service.
Other social media brands also collected a lot of data about their users. Instagram, which is owned by Facebook, collects almost 59 percent of data available to it, while Tinder sucks up nearly 56 percent and Grindr nearly 53 percent.
"Ads are how Facebook makes the most of their money -- around [US]$16.6 billion to be precise, based on their 2018 reports -- so the more they know about you, the more they can sell on," explained Clario Content Manager Mary Atamaniuk, in a company blog."
"As well as the usual, such as your name, location, email address and date of birth, they also collect a whole load of things you might not be aware you gave away," she added.
In fact, of the 32 items of personal information identified as collectible by Clario, only seven aren't grabbed by Facebook -- height, weight, mother's maiden name, bank account details, salary, country of birth, allergies/intolerances and health and lifestyle information.
From its start, Facebook has differentiated itself from Google by offering people-based marketing -- highly detailed profiles on people and audience segments that can be targeted, explained Greg Sterling, vice president of market insights at Uberall, a maker of location marketing solutions based in Berlin, Germany.
"That has gotten them in a lot of trouble with privacy advocates because of the way the platform has been abused by third-parties," he told TechNewsWorld.
One reason social media platforms collect so much data is that consumers allow a lot of their data to be collected, observed Liz Miller, vice president and a principal analyst at Constellation Research.
"Everything from where they are, what they are doing, what they like, what they dislike, sentiment and mood at a moment, device details -- it's all data consumers are leaving behind on the network," she told TechNewsWorld.
"Social media organizations have done a great job of finding all that data, synthesizing and categorizing it in a way that, not only can be used by themselves, but can be sold as a service to advertisers or internal teams to expand their business."
Not all social media are greedy for data. The Clario analysis showed two popular platforms, TikTok (14.71 percent) and WhatsApp (11.76 percent), at the bottom of the data grabber's list. Ironically, TikTok's U.S. presence has been threatened by the Trump Administration for the Chinese-based company's collecting data on Americans.
Privacy by Design
The report also noted the retail sector, in general, collected less data about its customers than other sectors.
"Despite being the biggest online retailer in the world, (and spending around $11 billion on advertising in 2019,) Amazon only collects a fraction of data compared to other businesses, 23.53%," Atamaniuk wrote.
"Beyond the obvious things, like your name, email address, home address and bank details, it collects little else other than what it needs to run its business," she noted.
"What Amazon has intentionally set out to do is identify the quality data that directly leads to the kind of interaction that moves their business needle, compared to others who collect peta bytes of quantity data that some day might be meaningful," Miller added.
Amazon's approach to data collection appears to be in line with emerging attitudes toward information.
"One of the basic principles of modern data privacy is to collect as little information as needed and to store it for the least amount of time necessary," explained James E. Lee, chief operating officer at the Identity Theft Resource Center in San Diego.
"This is one of the bedrock principles of the European approach to privacy, often described as 'privacy by design,'" he told TechNewsWorld. "It is just now being seriously discussed in the U.S. as a result of state privacy laws, but we have a long way to go before businesses are actively practicing this principle."
How Collected Data Is Being Used
Other retailers with low marks for hoovering data included IKEA (23.53 percent), Nike (26.47 percent) and Depop (26.47 percent). All the outlets store names, email and home addresses, along with bank details to make online purchases easier. In addition, Nike and Depop gather height and weight data to help them target their customers with more appropriate clothes.
Retailers have a different purpose for the data they collect than social media platforms, which is why they may need to collect less of it. "They use it to create better products and better present their products," observed Rob Enderle, president and principal analyst at the Enderle Group in Bend, Ore.
"They consume the data they collect themselves. They don't sell it," he told TechNewsWorld. "The reason they don't sell it is they don't want a competitor buying the data and using it against them. Sharing data is anathema to how they operate."
Atamaniuk noted that given the wealth of data shared with businesses, it'd be no surprise to see some things revealed about consumers that they'd rather be kept private.
"However, thanks to [General Data Protection Regulation]...what companies can actually do with your data is quite limited," she wrote. "Beyond marketing to you and using your data to manage their website, business can't do a lot more."
"You shouldn't get cold calls from businesses you've never spoken to, for example, or find your details are being sold," she continued. "Your data is protected by the policies companies are forced to sign up for, and if they break these policies they could face big fines."
As well-intentioned as laws like the GDPR are, they may still be falling short for many consumers.
"In practice, these things aren't very effective," Sterling maintained. "They put tremendous burdens on the consumer."
He explained that many websites are complying with the letter of laws like the GDPR and California Data Privacy Act, but making it so onerous to do something like stop the reselling of personal data or manage cookies that consumers give up exercising their rights so they can get on with their lives.
"They make you work," he said. "The easiest option is to accept all because you want to get to the content."
原文作者：John P. Mello Jr.