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社区首页 >专栏 >Android | 理解 ViewRootImpl

Android | 理解 ViewRootImpl

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发布2022-03-25 08:47:04
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发布2022-03-25 08:47:04
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简介

ViewRootImpl 是 View 的最高层级,是所有 View 的根。ViewRootImpl 实现了 View 和 WindowManager 之间所需要的协议。ViewRootImpl 的创建过程是从 WindowManagerImpl 中开始的。View 的测量,布局,绘制以及上屏,都是从 ViewRootImpl 中开始的。

我们通过一张图来认识一下它:

Window

我们知道界面中所有的元素都是由 View 构成的,View 是依附于 Window 上面的。Window 只是一个抽象概念,把界面抽象成一个 窗口,也可以抽象成一个 View。

ViewManange

一个接口,内部定义了三个方法,用来对 VIew 的添加,更新和删除。

代码语言:javascript
复制
public interface ViewManager
{
    public void addView(View view, ViewGroup.LayoutParams params);
    public void updateViewLayout(View view, ViewGroup.LayoutParams params);
    public void removeView(View view);
}

WindowManager

也是一个接口,继承自 ViewManager,在应用程序中,通过 WindowManager 来管理 Window,将 View 附加到 Window 上。他有一个实现类 WindowManagerImpl

WindowManagerImpl

WindowManager 的实现类,WindowManagerImpl 中的内部方法实现都是通过代理类 WindowManagerGlobal 来完成。

WindowManagerGlobal

WindowManagerGlobal 是一个单例,也就是说一个进程中只有一个 WindowManagerGlobal对象,他服务与所有页面的 View。

ViewParent

一个接口,定义了将成为 View 父级类的职责。

ViewRootImpl

视图层次结构的顶部。一个 Window 对应着一个 ViewRootImpl 和 一个 VIew。这个 View 就是被 ViewRootImpl 操作的。

一个小栗子,我们都只 Actiivty 中 会创建一个 Window 对象。 setContentView 方法中的 View 最终也会被添加到 Window 对象中的 DecorView 中,也就是说一个 Window 中对应着一个 View。这个 View 是被 RootViewImpl 操作的。 WindowManager 就是入口。通过 WindowManager 的 addView 添加一个 Window(也可以理解为 View),然后就会创建一个 ViewRootImpl,来对 view 进行操作,最后将 View 渲染到屏幕的窗口上。 例如 Activity 中,在 onresume 执行完成后,就会获取 Window 中的 DecorView,然后通过 WindowManager 把 DecorView 添加到窗口上,这个过程中是由 RootViewImpl 来完成测量,绘制,等操作的。 如果对 Window,WindowManager 不太熟悉可以先看一下这篇文章

RootViewImpl 的初始化

View 的三大流程都是通过 RootViewImpl 来完成的,在 ActivityThread 中,当 Activity 对象被创建完毕后,在 onResume 后,就会通过 WindowManager 将 DecorView 添加到窗口上,在这个过程中会创建 ViewRootImpl

ActivityThread.handleResumeActivity
代码语言:javascript
复制
public void handleResumeActivity(IBinder token, boolean finalStateRequest, boolean isForward,
        String reason) {

    // .....
    final ActivityClientRecord r = performResumeActivity(token, finalStateRequest, reason);
    final Activity a = r.activity;

    if (r.window == null && !a.mFinished && willBeVisible) {
        r.window = r.activity.getWindow();
        View decor = r.window.getDecorView();
        decor.setVisibility(View.INVISIBLE);
        ViewManager wm = a.getWindowManager();
        WindowManager.LayoutParams l = r.window.getAttributes();
        a.mDecor = decor;
        //设置窗口类型为应用类型
        l.type = WindowManager.LayoutParams.TYPE_BASE_APPLICATION;
  
        if (a.mVisibleFromClient) {
            if (!a.mWindowAdded) {
                a.mWindowAdded = true;
                //添加 decor 到 window 中
                wm.addView(decor, l);
            } else {
                a.onWindowAttributesChanged(l);
            }
        }
    } 
    //....
}
WindowManagerImpl.addView
代码语言:javascript
复制
public void addView(@NonNull View view, @NonNull ViewGroup.LayoutParams params) {
    applyDefaultToken(params);
    mGlobal.addView(view, params, mContext.getDisplay(), mParentWindow);
}
WindowManagerGlobal.addView
代码语言:javascript
复制
public void addView(View view, ViewGroup.LayoutParams params,
        Display display, Window parentWindow) {
    //检查参数是否合法
    if (view == null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("view must not be null");
    }
    if (display == null) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("display must not be null");
    }
    if (!(params instanceof WindowManager.LayoutParams)) {
        throw new IllegalArgumentException("Params must be WindowManager.LayoutParams");
    }

    final WindowManager.LayoutParams wparams = (WindowManager.LayoutParams) params;
      //.....
    
    ViewRootImpl root;
    View panelParentView = null;

    synchronized (mLock) {
   
        //创建 ViewRootImpl
        root = new ViewRootImpl(view.getContext(), display);

        view.setLayoutParams(wparams);
        
        //将 Window 所对应的 View,ViewRootImp,params 顺序添加到列表中,这一步是为了方便更新和删除 View
        mViews.add(view);
        mRoots.add(root);
        mParams.add(wparams);

        // do this last because it fires off messages to start doing things
        try {
            //把 Window 对应的 View 设置给创建的 ViewRootImpl
            //通过 ViewRootImpl 来更新界面并添加到 WIndow中。
            root.setView(view, wparams, panelParentView);
        } catch (RuntimeException e) {
            // BadTokenException or InvalidDisplayException, clean up.
            if (index >= 0) {
                removeViewLocked(index, true);
            }
            throw e;
        }
    }
}

ViewRootImpl 对 View 进行操作

ViewRootImpl.setView
代码语言:javascript
复制
public void setView(View view, WindowManager.LayoutParams attrs, View panelParentView) {
    synchronized (this) {
        if (mView == null) {
            mView = view;
            attrs = mWindowAttributes;
   
              //请求布局,执行 View 的绘制方法
            requestLayout();
            if ((mWindowAttributes.inputFeatures
                    & WindowManager.LayoutParams.INPUT_FEATURE_NO_INPUT_CHANNEL) == 0) {
                mInputChannel = new InputChannel();
            }
            mForceDecorViewVisibility = (mWindowAttributes.privateFlags
                    & PRIVATE_FLAG_FORCE_DECOR_VIEW_VISIBILITY) != 0;
            try {
                mOrigWindowType = mWindowAttributes.type;
                mAttachInfo.mRecomputeGlobalAttributes = true;
                collectViewAttributes();
                //将 Window 添加到屏幕上,mWindowSession 实现了 IWindowSession接口,是 Session 的 Binder 对象。
                // addToDisplay 是一次 AIDL 的过程,通知 WindowManagerServer 添加 Window
                res = mWindowSession.addToDisplay(mWindow, mSeq, mWindowAttributes,
                        getHostVisibility(), mDisplay.getDisplayId(), mTmpFrame,
                        mAttachInfo.mContentInsets, mAttachInfo.mStableInsets,
                        mAttachInfo.mOutsets, mAttachInfo.mDisplayCutout, mInputChannel,
                        mTempInsets);
                setFrame(mTmpFrame);
            }
            //设置当前 View 的 Parent
            view.assignParent(this);
        }
    }
}
ViewRootImpl.requestLayout
代码语言:javascript
复制
//请求布局
public void requestLayout() {
    if (!mHandlingLayoutInLayoutRequest) {
        checkThread();
        mLayoutRequested = true;
        scheduleTraversals();
    }
}
//检测当前线程,如果不是主线程,直接抛出异常
void checkThread() {
    if (mThread != Thread.currentThread()) {
        throw new CalledFromWrongThreadException(
            "Only the original thread that created a view hierarchy can touch its views.");
    }
}


final class TraversalRunnable implements Runnable {
    @Override
    public void run() {
        doTraversal();
    }
}
final TraversalRunnable mTraversalRunnable = new TraversalRunnable();

void scheduleTraversals() {
    if (!mTraversalScheduled) {
        mTraversalScheduled = true;
        mTraversalBarrier = mHandler.getLooper().getQueue().postSyncBarrier();
        mChoreographer.postCallback(
            Choreographer.CALLBACK_TRAVERSAL, mTraversalRunnable, null);
        if (!mUnbufferedInputDispatch) {
            scheduleConsumeBatchedInput();
        }
        notifyRendererOfFramePending();
        pokeDrawLockIfNeeded();
    }
}

void doTraversal() {
    if (mTraversalScheduled) {
        mTraversalScheduled = false;
        mHandler.getLooper().getQueue().removeSyncBarrier(mTraversalBarrier);

        if (mProfile) {
            Debug.startMethodTracing("ViewAncestor");
        }

        performTraversals();

        if (mProfile) {
            Debug.stopMethodTracing();
            mProfile = false;
        }
    }
}

在上面代码中,调用 requestLayout 请求布局,最终会执行到 performTraversals 方法中。在这个方法中会调用 Viewmeasure()layout()draw() 方法。

ViewRootImpl. performTraversals
代码语言:javascript
复制
private void performTraversals() {
    // cache mView since it is used so much below...
    final View host = mView;

    //想要展示 Window 的宽高
    int desiredWindowWidth;
    int desiredWindowHeight;
    //第一次执行
    if (mFirst) {
        //....
    
           //将窗口信息附加到 View 上。
        host.dispatchAttachedToWindow(mAttachInfo, 0);
        //....
    } else {
        desiredWindowWidth = frame.width();
        desiredWindowHeight = frame.height();
        if (desiredWindowWidth != mWidth || desiredWindowHeight != mHeight) {
            if (DEBUG_ORIENTATION) Log.v(mTag, "View " + host + " resized to: " + frame);
            mFullRedrawNeeded = true;
            mLayoutRequested = true;
            windowSizeMayChange = true;
        }
    }

    //开始进行布局准备
    boolean windowShouldResize = layoutRequested && windowSizeMayChange
        && ((mWidth != host.getMeasuredWidth() || mHeight != host.getMeasuredHeight())
            || (lp.width == ViewGroup.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT &&
                    frame.width() < desiredWindowWidth && frame.width() != mWidth)
            || (lp.height == ViewGroup.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT &&
                    frame.height() < desiredWindowHeight && frame.height() != mHeight));
    windowShouldResize |= mDragResizing && mResizeMode == RESIZE_MODE_FREEFORM;
    windowShouldResize |= mActivityRelaunched;
    final boolean computesInternalInsets =
            mAttachInfo.mTreeObserver.hasComputeInternalInsetsListeners()
            || mAttachInfo.mHasNonEmptyGivenInternalInsets;

    if (mFirst || windowShouldResize || insetsChanged ||
            viewVisibilityChanged || params != null || mForceNextWindowRelayout) {
        mForceNextWindowRelayout = false;
        //....
        if (!mStopped || mReportNextDraw) {
            boolean focusChangedDueToTouchMode = ensureTouchModeLocally(
                    (relayoutResult&WindowManagerGlobal.RELAYOUT_RES_IN_TOUCH_MODE) != 0);
            if (focusChangedDueToTouchMode || mWidth != host.getMeasuredWidth()
                    || mHeight != host.getMeasuredHeight() || contentInsetsChanged ||
                    updatedConfiguration) {
                int childWidthMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(mWidth, lp.width);
                int childHeightMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(mHeight, lp.height);

                performMeasure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
        
                if (measureAgain) {
                    //View 的测量
                    performMeasure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
                }

                layoutRequested = true;
            }
        }
    }
    //..........
    final boolean didLayout = layoutRequested && (!mStopped || mReportNextDraw);
    boolean triggerGlobalLayoutListener = didLayout
            || mAttachInfo.mRecomputeGlobalAttributes;
    if (didLayout) {
        // View 的布局
        performLayout(lp, mWidth, mHeight);
        //.....
    }

    //......
    boolean cancelDraw = mAttachInfo.mTreeObserver.dispatchOnPreDraw() || !isViewVisible;
    if (!cancelDraw) {
          // View 的绘制
        performDraw();
    } else {
        if (isViewVisible) {
            // Try again
            scheduleTraversals();
        } else if (mPendingTransitions != null && mPendingTransitions.size() > 0) {
            for (int i = 0; i < mPendingTransitions.size(); ++i) {
                mPendingTransitions.get(i).endChangingAnimations();
            }
            mPendingTransitions.clear();
        }
    }

    mIsInTraversal = false;
}

View 的测量

ViewRootImpl 调用 performMeasure 执行 Window 对应的 View 测量。

代码语言:javascript
复制
private void performMeasure(int childWidthMeasureSpec, int childHeightMeasureSpec) {
    if (mView == null) {
        return;
    }
    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW, "measure");
    try {
        mView.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
    } finally {
        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW);
    }
}

performMeasure 方法中就会执行 View 的 measure 方法,在其中会计算一下约束信息,然后就会调用 onMeasure 方法,

View 的布局

ViewRootImpl 调用 performLayout 执行 Window 对应 View 的布局

代码语言:javascript
复制
private void performLayout(WindowManager.LayoutParams lp, int desiredWindowWidth,
        int desiredWindowHeight) {
    mScrollMayChange = true;
    mInLayout = true;


    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW, "layout");
    try {
        // 调用 layout 方法进行布局
        host.layout(0, 0, host.getMeasuredWidth(), host.getMeasuredHeight());

        mInLayout = false;
        int numViewsRequestingLayout = mLayoutRequesters.size();
        if (numViewsRequestingLayout > 0) {
      
            ArrayList<View> validLayoutRequesters = getValidLayoutRequesters(mLayoutRequesters,
                    false);
            if (validLayoutRequesters != null) {
   
                mHandlingLayoutInLayoutRequest = true;

                // Process fresh layout requests, then measure and layout
                int numValidRequests = validLayoutRequesters.size();
                for (int i = 0; i < numValidRequests; ++i) {
                    final View view = validLayoutRequesters.get(i);
                    Log.w("View", "requestLayout() improperly called by " + view +
                            " during layout: running second layout pass");
                    // 请求对该 View 进行布局,该操作会导致此 View 被重新测量,布局,绘制
                    view.requestLayout();
                }
                measureHierarchy(host, lp, mView.getContext().getResources(),
                        desiredWindowWidth, desiredWindowHeight);
                mInLayout = true;
                host.layout(0, 0, host.getMeasuredWidth(), host.getMeasuredHeight());

                mHandlingLayoutInLayoutRequest = false;

                // Check the valid requests again, this time without checking/clearing the
                // layout flags, since requests happening during the second pass get noop'd
                validLayoutRequesters = getValidLayoutRequesters(mLayoutRequesters, true);
                if (validLayoutRequesters != null) {
                    final ArrayList<View> finalRequesters = validLayoutRequesters;
                    // Post second-pass requests to the next frame
                    getRunQueue().post(new Runnable() {
                        @Override
                        public void run() {
                            int numValidRequests = finalRequesters.size();
                            for (int i = 0; i < numValidRequests; ++i) {
                                final View view = finalRequesters.get(i);
                                // 请求对该 View 进行布局,该操作会导致此 View 被重新测量,布局,绘制
                                view.requestLayout();
                            }
                        }
                    });
                }
            }

        }
    } finally {
        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW);
    }
    mInLayout = false;
}

通过上面代码可以看出,在 layout 布局期间,有可能会对 View 进行 requestLayout 重新进行测量,布局,绘制。

View 的绘制

ViewRootImpl 通过调用 performDraw 执行 Window 对应 View 的绘制。

代码语言:javascript
复制
private void performDraw() {
    if (mAttachInfo.mDisplayState == Display.STATE_OFF && !mReportNextDraw) {
        return;
    } else if (mView == null) {
        return;
    }

    final boolean fullRedrawNeeded =
            mFullRedrawNeeded || mReportNextDraw || mNextDrawUseBlastSync;
    mFullRedrawNeeded = false;

    mIsDrawing = true;
    Trace.traceBegin(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW, "draw");

    boolean usingAsyncReport = addFrameCompleteCallbackIfNeeded();
    addFrameCallbackIfNeeded();

    try {
        //绘制
        boolean canUseAsync = draw(fullRedrawNeeded);
        if (usingAsyncReport && !canUseAsync) {
            mAttachInfo.mThreadedRenderer.setFrameCompleteCallback(null);
            usingAsyncReport = false;
        }
    } finally {
        mIsDrawing = false;
        Trace.traceEnd(Trace.TRACE_TAG_VIEW);
    }
    //...
}
代码语言:javascript
复制
private boolean draw(boolean fullRedrawNeeded) {
    //........
 
    //通知 View 上注册的绘制事件
    mAttachInfo.mTreeObserver.dispatchOnDraw();

    boolean useAsyncReport = false;
    if (!dirty.isEmpty() || mIsAnimating || accessibilityFocusDirty || mNextDrawUseBlastSync) {
        if (isHardwareEnabled()) {
              //调用 Window 对应 View 的 invalidate 方法
            mAttachInfo.mThreadedRenderer.draw(mView, mAttachInfo, this);
        } else {
              // 绘制 View
            if (!drawSoftware(surface, mAttachInfo, xOffset, yOffset,
                    scalingRequired, dirty, surfaceInsets)) {
                return false;
            }
        }
    }

    if (animating) {
        mFullRedrawNeeded = true;
        scheduleTraversals();
    }
    return useAsyncReport;
}
void invalidate() {
    mDirty.set(0, 0, mWidth, mHeight);
    if (!mWillDrawSoon) {
        scheduleTraversals();
    }
}
代码语言:javascript
复制
private boolean drawSoftware(Surface surface, AttachInfo attachInfo, int xoff, int yoff,
        boolean scalingRequired, Rect dirty, Rect surfaceInsets) {

    // Draw with software renderer.
    final Canvas canvas;
    try {
        canvas = mSurface.lockCanvas(dirty);
        // TODO: Do this in native
        canvas.setDensity(mDensity);
    } 

    try {
        if (DEBUG_ORIENTATION || DEBUG_DRAW) {
            Log.v(mTag, "Surface " + surface + " drawing to bitmap w="
                    + canvas.getWidth() + ", h=" + canvas.getHeight());
            //canvas.drawARGB(255, 255, 0, 0);
        }
        // View 绘制
        mView.draw(canvas);

        drawAccessibilityFocusedDrawableIfNeeded(canvas);
    } finally {
        
    }
    return true;
}

参考资料

Android 开发艺术探索

ViewRootImpl的独白

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原始发表:2022/03/21 ,如有侵权请联系 cloudcommunity@tencent.com 删除

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目录
  • 简介
  • RootViewImpl 的初始化
    • ActivityThread.handleResumeActivity
      • WindowManagerImpl.addView
        • WindowManagerGlobal.addView
        • ViewRootImpl 对 View 进行操作
          • ViewRootImpl.setView
            • ViewRootImpl.requestLayout
              • ViewRootImpl. performTraversals
              • View 的测量
              • View 的布局
              • View 的绘制
              • 参考资料
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