ASP.NET标识DbContext混淆

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默认的MVC 5应用程序在IdghtyModels.cs中附带了这段代码--这段代码适用于所有ASP。默认模板的净标识操作:

public class ApplicationDbContext : IdentityDbContext<ApplicationUser>
{
    public ApplicationDbContext()
        : base("DefaultConnection")
    {
    }
}

如果我使用带有实体框架的视图搭建了一个新控制器,并在对话框中创建了一个“New Data Context...”,那么我将生成以下内容:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace WebApplication1.Models
{
    public class AllTheOtherStuffDbContext : DbContext
    {
        // You can add custom code to this file. Changes will not be overwritten.
        // 
        // If you want Entity Framework to drop and regenerate your database
        // automatically whenever you change your model schema, please use data migrations.
        // For more information refer to the documentation:
        // http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/data/jj591621.aspx

        public AllTheOtherStuffDbContext() : base("name=AllTheOtherStuffDbContext")
        {
        }

        public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; }

    }
} 

如果我使用EF搭建另一个控制器+视图,例如对于一个动物模型,这条新行将在下面自动生成public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; }-像这样:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web;

namespace WebApplication1.Models
{
    public class AllTheOtherStuffDbContext : DbContext
    {
        // You can add custom code to this file. Changes will not be overwritten.
        // 
        // If you want Entity Framework to drop and regenerate your database
        // automatically whenever you change your model schema, please use data migrations.
        // For more information refer to the documentation:
        // http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/data/jj591621.aspx

        public AllTheOtherStuffDbContext() : base("name=AllTheOtherStuffDbContext")
        {
        }

        public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Movie> Movies { get; set; }
        public System.Data.Entity.DbSet<WebApplication1.Models.Animal> Animals { get; set; }

    }
} 

ApplicationDbContext(对所有ASP.。网络身份(NETIDENTITY)继承自IdentityDbContext而这反过来又继承了DbContext...AllOtherStuffDbContext(为了我自己的东西)继承自DbContext...

所以我的问题是:

这两个中的哪一个(ApplicationDbContextAllOtherStuffDbContext)我应该用在我自己的所有其他型号上吗?或者我应该使用默认的自动生成ApplicationDbContext因为它从基类派生而来,所以使用它不应该是一个问题。DbContext,还是会有一些开销?你应该只用一个DbContext对象在应用程序中为所有模型(我在某个地方读过此),因此我甚至不应该考虑使用这两种方法。ApplicationDbContextAllOtherStuffDbContext在一个应用程序里?或者在MVC 5中使用ASP的最佳实践是什么?

提问于
用户回答回答于

要回答所有这些问题,我们只需要指出IdghtyDbContext只是一个继承自DbContext的类。

让我们看看IdghtyDbContext源*

/// <summary>
/// Base class for the Entity Framework database context used for identity.
/// </summary>
/// <typeparam name="TUser">The type of user objects.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TRole">The type of role objects.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TKey">The type of the primary key for users and roles.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserClaim">The type of the user claim object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserRole">The type of the user role object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserLogin">The type of the user login object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TRoleClaim">The type of the role claim object.</typeparam>
/// <typeparam name="TUserToken">The type of the user token object.</typeparam>
public abstract class IdentityDbContext<TUser, TRole, TKey, TUserClaim, TUserRole, TUserLogin, TRoleClaim, TUserToken> : DbContext
    where TUser : IdentityUser<TKey, TUserClaim, TUserRole, TUserLogin>
    where TRole : IdentityRole<TKey, TUserRole, TRoleClaim>
    where TKey : IEquatable<TKey>
    where TUserClaim : IdentityUserClaim<TKey>
    where TUserRole : IdentityUserRole<TKey>
    where TUserLogin : IdentityUserLogin<TKey>
    where TRoleClaim : IdentityRoleClaim<TKey>
    where TUserToken : IdentityUserToken<TKey>
{
    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of <see cref="IdentityDbContext"/>.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="options">The options to be used by a <see cref="DbContext"/>.</param>
    public IdentityDbContext(DbContextOptions options) : base(options)
    { }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a new instance of the <see cref="IdentityDbContext" /> class.
    /// </summary>
    protected IdentityDbContext()
    { }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of Users.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUser> Users { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User claims.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserClaim> UserClaims { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User logins.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserLogin> UserLogins { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User roles.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserRole> UserRoles { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of User tokens.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TUserToken> UserTokens { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of roles.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TRole> Roles { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Gets or sets the <see cref="DbSet{TEntity}"/> of role claims.
    /// </summary>
    public DbSet<TRoleClaim> RoleClaims { get; set; }

    /// <summary>
    /// Configures the schema needed for the identity framework.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="builder">
    /// The builder being used to construct the model for this context.
    /// </param>
    protected override void OnModelCreating(ModelBuilder builder)
    {
        builder.Entity<TUser>(b =>
        {
            b.HasKey(u => u.Id);
            b.HasIndex(u => u.NormalizedUserName).HasName("UserNameIndex").IsUnique();
            b.HasIndex(u => u.NormalizedEmail).HasName("EmailIndex");
            b.ToTable("AspNetUsers");
            b.Property(u => u.ConcurrencyStamp).IsConcurrencyToken();

            b.Property(u => u.UserName).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.NormalizedUserName).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.Email).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.NormalizedEmail).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.HasMany(u => u.Claims).WithOne().HasForeignKey(uc => uc.UserId).IsRequired();
            b.HasMany(u => u.Logins).WithOne().HasForeignKey(ul => ul.UserId).IsRequired();
            b.HasMany(u => u.Roles).WithOne().HasForeignKey(ur => ur.UserId).IsRequired();
        });

        builder.Entity<TRole>(b =>
        {
            b.HasKey(r => r.Id);
            b.HasIndex(r => r.NormalizedName).HasName("RoleNameIndex");
            b.ToTable("AspNetRoles");
            b.Property(r => r.ConcurrencyStamp).IsConcurrencyToken();

            b.Property(u => u.Name).HasMaxLength(256);
            b.Property(u => u.NormalizedName).HasMaxLength(256);

            b.HasMany(r => r.Users).WithOne().HasForeignKey(ur => ur.RoleId).IsRequired();
            b.HasMany(r => r.Claims).WithOne().HasForeignKey(rc => rc.RoleId).IsRequired();
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserClaim>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(uc => uc.Id);
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserClaims");
        });

        builder.Entity<TRoleClaim>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(rc => rc.Id);
            b.ToTable("AspNetRoleClaims");
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserRole>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(r => new { r.UserId, r.RoleId });
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserRoles");
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserLogin>(b =>
        {
            b.HasKey(l => new { l.LoginProvider, l.ProviderKey });
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserLogins");
        });

        builder.Entity<TUserToken>(b => 
        {
            b.HasKey(l => new { l.UserId, l.LoginProvider, l.Name });
            b.ToTable("AspNetUserTokens");
        });
    }
}

根据源代码,如果我们想将Identity yDbContext与我们的DbContext合并,我们有两个选项:

第一种选择:

创建一个DbContext,它从IdghtyDbContext继承并访问这些类。

   public class ApplicationDbContext 
    : IdentityDbContext
{
    public ApplicationDbContext()
        : base("DefaultConnection")
    {
    }

    static ApplicationDbContext()
    {
        Database.SetInitializer<ApplicationDbContext>(new ApplicationDbInitializer());
    }

    public static ApplicationDbContext Create()
    {
        return new ApplicationDbContext();
    }

    // Add additional items here as needed
}

附加说明:

1)我们还可以使用以下解决方案更改ASP.NET标识默认表名:

    public class ApplicationDbContext : IdentityDbContext
    {    
        public ApplicationDbContext(): base("DefaultConnection")
        {
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(System.Data.Entity.DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            base.OnModelCreating(modelBuilder);
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUser>().ToTable("user");
            modelBuilder.Entity<ApplicationUser>().ToTable("user");

            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityRole>().ToTable("role");
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUserRole>().ToTable("userrole");
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUserClaim>().ToTable("userclaim");
            modelBuilder.Entity<IdentityUserLogin>().ToTable("userlogin");
        }
    }

2)此外,我们还可以扩展每个类,并将任何属性添加到类中,如“IdghtyUser”、“IdghtyRole”、“...

    public class ApplicationRole : IdentityRole<string, ApplicationUserRole>
{
    public ApplicationRole() 
    {
        this.Id = Guid.NewGuid().ToString();
    }

    public ApplicationRole(string name)
        : this()
    {
        this.Name = name;
    }

    // Add any custom Role properties/code here
}


// Must be expressed in terms of our custom types:
public class ApplicationDbContext 
    : IdentityDbContext<ApplicationUser, ApplicationRole, 
    string, ApplicationUserLogin, ApplicationUserRole, ApplicationUserClaim>
{
    public ApplicationDbContext()
        : base("DefaultConnection")
    {
    }

    static ApplicationDbContext()
    {
        Database.SetInitializer<ApplicationDbContext>(new ApplicationDbInitializer());
    }

    public static ApplicationDbContext Create()
    {
        return new ApplicationDbContext();
    }

    // Add additional items here as needed
}

为了节省时间我们可以用ASSPNet标识2.0可扩展项目模板来扩展所有的类。

第二种选择:(不建议)

实际上,如果我们自己编写所有代码,我们就不必继承Identity yDbContext。

因此,基本上我们可以从DbContext继承并实现我们的自定义版本的“OnModelCreating(ModelBuilderBuilder)”

用户回答回答于

我将使用一个上下文类,继承Identity yDbContext。通过这种方式,你可以让上下文知道类与Identity yUser之间的任何关系,以及Identity yDbContext的角色。IdghtyDbContext中的开销非常小,它基本上是一个具有两个DbSets的常规DbContext。一个给用户,一个给角色。

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