如何使用java发送电子邮件?

内容来源于 Stack Overflow,并遵循CC BY-SA 3.0许可协议进行翻译与使用

  • 回答 (2)
  • 关注 (0)
  • 查看 (20)

我试图用Java发送一封电子邮件:

import java.util.*;
import javax.mail.*;
import javax.mail.internet.*;
import javax.activation.*;

public class SendEmail {

   public static void main(String [] args) {

      // Recipient's email ID needs to be mentioned.
      String to = "abcd@gmail.com";

      // Sender's email ID needs to be mentioned
      String from = "web@gmail.com";

      // Assuming you are sending email from localhost
      String host = "localhost";

      // Get system properties
      Properties properties = System.getProperties();

      // Setup mail server
      properties.setProperty("mail.smtp.host", host);

      // Get the default Session object.
      Session session = Session.getDefaultInstance(properties);

      try{
         // Create a default MimeMessage object.
         MimeMessage message = new MimeMessage(session);

         // Set From: header field of the header.
         message.setFrom(new InternetAddress(from));

         // Set To: header field of the header.
         message.addRecipient(Message.RecipientType.TO,
                                  new InternetAddress(to));

         // Set Subject: header field
         message.setSubject("This is the Subject Line!");

         // Now set the actual message
         message.setText("This is actual message");

         // Send message
         Transport.send(message);
         System.out.println("Sent message successfully....");
      }catch (MessagingException mex) {
         mex.printStackTrace();
      }
   }
}

我得到了错误:

javax.mail.MessagingException: Could not connect to SMTP host: localhost, port: 25;
  nested exception is:java.net.ConnectException: Connection refused: connect
        at com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport.openServer(SMTPTransport.java:1706)
        at com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport.protocolConnect(SMTPTransport.java:525)

这段代码能用来发送电子邮件吗?

提问于
用户回答回答于

下面的代码在GoogleSMTP服务器上运行得很好。需要提供谷歌用户名和密码。

import com.sun.mail.smtp.SMTPTransport;
import java.security.Security;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Properties;
import javax.mail.Message;
import javax.mail.MessagingException;
import javax.mail.Session;
import javax.mail.internet.AddressException;
import javax.mail.internet.InternetAddress;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;

/**
 *
 * @author doraemon
 */
public class GoogleMail {
    private GoogleMail() {
    }

    /**
     * Send email using GMail SMTP server.
     *
     * @param username GMail username
     * @param password GMail password
     * @param recipientEmail TO recipient
     * @param title title of the message
     * @param message message to be sent
     * @throws AddressException if the email address parse failed
     * @throws MessagingException if the connection is dead or not in the connected state or if the message is not a MimeMessage
     */
    public static void Send(final String username, final String password, String recipientEmail, String title, String message) throws AddressException, MessagingException {
        GoogleMail.Send(username, password, recipientEmail, "", title, message);
    }

    /**
     * Send email using GMail SMTP server.
     *
     * @param username GMail username
     * @param password GMail password
     * @param recipientEmail TO recipient
     * @param ccEmail CC recipient. Can be empty if there is no CC recipient
     * @param title title of the message
     * @param message message to be sent
     * @throws AddressException if the email address parse failed
     * @throws MessagingException if the connection is dead or not in the connected state or if the message is not a MimeMessage
     */
    public static void Send(final String username, final String password, String recipientEmail, String ccEmail, String title, String message) throws AddressException, MessagingException {
        Security.addProvider(new com.sun.net.ssl.internal.ssl.Provider());
        final String SSL_FACTORY = "javax.net.ssl.SSLSocketFactory";

        // Get a Properties object
        Properties props = System.getProperties();
        props.setProperty("mail.smtps.host", "smtp.gmail.com");
        props.setProperty("mail.smtp.socketFactory.class", SSL_FACTORY);
        props.setProperty("mail.smtp.socketFactory.fallback", "false");
        props.setProperty("mail.smtp.port", "465");
        props.setProperty("mail.smtp.socketFactory.port", "465");
        props.setProperty("mail.smtps.auth", "true");

        /*
        If set to false, the QUIT command is sent and the connection is immediately closed. If set 
        to true (the default), causes the transport to wait for the response to the QUIT command.

        ref :   http://java.sun.com/products/javamail/javadocs/com/sun/mail/smtp/package-summary.html
                http://forum.java.sun.com/thread.jspa?threadID=5205249
                smtpsend.java - demo program from javamail
        */
        props.put("mail.smtps.quitwait", "false");

        Session session = Session.getInstance(props, null);

        // -- Create a new message --
        final MimeMessage msg = new MimeMessage(session);

        // -- Set the FROM and TO fields --
        msg.setFrom(new InternetAddress(username + "@gmail.com"));
        msg.setRecipients(Message.RecipientType.TO, InternetAddress.parse(recipientEmail, false));

        if (ccEmail.length() > 0) {
            msg.setRecipients(Message.RecipientType.CC, InternetAddress.parse(ccEmail, false));
        }

        msg.setSubject(title);
        msg.setText(message, "utf-8");
        msg.setSentDate(new Date());

        SMTPTransport t = (SMTPTransport)session.getTransport("smtps");

        t.connect("smtp.gmail.com", username, password);
        t.sendMessage(msg, msg.getAllRecipients());      
        t.close();
    }
}

GoogleMail.java

import com.google.api.client.util.Base64;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.Gmail;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.model.Message;
import java.io.ByteArrayOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Properties;

import javax.mail.MessagingException;
import javax.mail.Session;
import javax.mail.internet.InternetAddress;
import javax.mail.internet.MimeMessage;

/**
 *
 * @author doraemon
 */
public class GoogleMail {
    private GoogleMail() {
    }

    private static MimeMessage createEmail(String to, String cc, String from, String subject, String bodyText) throws MessagingException {
        Properties props = new Properties();
        Session session = Session.getDefaultInstance(props, null);

        MimeMessage email = new MimeMessage(session);
        InternetAddress tAddress = new InternetAddress(to);
        InternetAddress cAddress = cc.isEmpty() ? null : new InternetAddress(cc);
        InternetAddress fAddress = new InternetAddress(from);

        email.setFrom(fAddress);
        if (cAddress != null) {
            email.addRecipient(javax.mail.Message.RecipientType.CC, cAddress);
        }
        email.addRecipient(javax.mail.Message.RecipientType.TO, tAddress);
        email.setSubject(subject);
        email.setText(bodyText);
        return email;
    }

    private static Message createMessageWithEmail(MimeMessage email) throws MessagingException, IOException {
        ByteArrayOutputStream baos = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
        email.writeTo(baos);
        String encodedEmail = Base64.encodeBase64URLSafeString(baos.toByteArray());
        Message message = new Message();
        message.setRaw(encodedEmail);
        return message;
    }

    public static void Send(Gmail service, String recipientEmail, String ccEmail, String fromEmail, String title, String message) throws IOException, MessagingException {
        Message m = createMessageWithEmail(createEmail(recipientEmail, ccEmail, fromEmail, title, message));
        service.users().messages().send("me", m).execute();
    }
}

要通过OAuth2构建一个授权的Gmail服务,下面是代码片段。

Utils.java

import com.google.api.client.auth.oauth2.Credential;
import com.google.api.client.extensions.jetty.auth.oauth2.LocalServerReceiver;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.auth.oauth2.GoogleClientSecrets;
import com.google.api.client.googleapis.javanet.GoogleNetHttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.http.HttpTransport;
import com.google.api.client.json.gson.GsonFactory;
import com.google.api.client.util.store.FileDataStoreFactory;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.Gmail;
import com.google.api.services.gmail.GmailScopes;
import com.google.api.services.oauth2.Oauth2;
import com.google.api.services.oauth2.model.Userinfoplus;
import java.io.BufferedWriter;
import java.io.File;
import java.io.FileOutputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.io.OutputStreamWriter;
import java.nio.file.Files;
import java.nio.file.Paths;
import java.security.GeneralSecurityException;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.Set;
import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;
import org.yccheok.jstock.engine.Pair;

/**
 *
 * @author yccheok
 */
public class Utils {
    /** Global instance of the JSON factory. */
    private static final GsonFactory JSON_FACTORY = GsonFactory.getDefaultInstance();

    /** Global instance of the HTTP transport. */
    private static HttpTransport httpTransport;

    private static final Log log = LogFactory.getLog(Utils.class);

    static {
        try {
            // initialize the transport
            httpTransport = GoogleNetHttpTransport.newTrustedTransport();

        } catch (IOException ex) {
            log.error(null, ex);
        } catch (GeneralSecurityException ex) {
            log.error(null, ex);
        }
    }

    private static File getGmailDataDirectory() {
        return new File(org.yccheok.jstock.gui.Utils.getUserDataDirectory() + "authentication" + File.separator + "gmail");
    }

    /**
     * Send a request to the UserInfo API to retrieve the user's information.
     *
     * @param credentials OAuth 2.0 credentials to authorize the request.
     * @return User's information.
     * @throws java.io.IOException
     */
    public static Userinfoplus getUserInfo(Credential credentials) throws IOException
    {
        Oauth2 userInfoService =
            new Oauth2.Builder(httpTransport, JSON_FACTORY, credentials).setApplicationName("JStock").build();
        Userinfoplus userInfo  = userInfoService.userinfo().get().execute();
        return userInfo;
    }

    public static String loadEmail(File dataStoreDirectory)  {
        File file = new File(dataStoreDirectory, "email");
        try {
            return new String(Files.readAllBytes(Paths.get(file.toURI())), "UTF-8");
        } catch (IOException ex) {
            log.error(null, ex);
            return null;
        }
    }

    public static boolean saveEmail(File dataStoreDirectory, String email) {
        File file = new File(dataStoreDirectory, "email");
        try {
            //If the constructor throws an exception, the finally block will NOT execute
            BufferedWriter writer = new BufferedWriter(new OutputStreamWriter(new FileOutputStream(file), "UTF-8"));
            try {
                writer.write(email);
            } finally {
                writer.close();
            }
            return true;
        } catch (IOException ex){
            log.error(null, ex);
            return false;
        }
    }

    public static void logoutGmail() {
        File credential = new File(getGmailDataDirectory(), "StoredCredential");
        File email = new File(getGmailDataDirectory(), "email");
        credential.delete();
        email.delete();
    }

    public static Pair<Pair<Credential, String>, Boolean> authorizeGmail() throws Exception {
        // Ask for only the permissions you need. Asking for more permissions will
        // reduce the number of users who finish the process for giving you access
        // to their accounts. It will also increase the amount of effort you will
        // have to spend explaining to users what you are doing with their data.
        // Here we are listing all of the available scopes. You should remove scopes
        // that you are not actually using.
        Set<String> scopes = new HashSet<>();

        // We would like to display what email this credential associated to.
        scopes.add("email");

        scopes.add(GmailScopes.GMAIL_SEND);

        // load client secrets
        GoogleClientSecrets clientSecrets = GoogleClientSecrets.load(Utils.JSON_FACTORY,
            new InputStreamReader(Utils.class.getResourceAsStream("/assets/authentication/gmail/client_secrets.json")));

        return authorize(clientSecrets, scopes, getGmailDataDirectory());
    }

    /** Authorizes the installed application to access user's protected data.
     * @return 
     * @throws java.lang.Exception */
    private static Pair<Pair<Credential, String>, Boolean> authorize(GoogleClientSecrets clientSecrets, Set<String> scopes, File dataStoreDirectory) throws Exception {
        // Set up authorization code flow.

        GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow flow = new GoogleAuthorizationCodeFlow.Builder(
            httpTransport, JSON_FACTORY, clientSecrets, scopes)
            .setDataStoreFactory(new FileDataStoreFactory(dataStoreDirectory))
            .build();
        // authorize
        return new MyAuthorizationCodeInstalledApp(flow, new LocalServerReceiver()).authorize("user");
    }

    public static Gmail getGmail(Credential credential) {
        Gmail service = new Gmail.Builder(httpTransport, JSON_FACTORY, credential).setApplicationName("JStock").build();
        return service;        
    }
}

为了提供一种用户友好的OAuth2身份验证方式,我使用了JavaFX,显示了以下输入对话框

热门问答

腾讯云 COS 怎么才能外链调用 m3u8 到别的网站播放?

滑稽园扛把子

Swoole · PHP开发工程师 (已认证)

As a PHP Developer
推荐
设置公有读私有写:当访问对象时,COS 读取到对象的权限为公有读,此时无论存储桶为何种权限,对象都可以被直接下载 设置步骤 登录 对象存储控制台,选择左侧菜单栏【存储桶列表】,进入存储桶列表页面。单击需要修改对象权限的对应存储桶,进入存储桶。 📷 找到需要设置权限的对象(如 e...... 展开详请

Ubuntu搭建的WordPress如何修改php.ini?

滑稽园扛把子

Swoole · PHP开发工程师 (已认证)

As a PHP Developer
推荐
php新手很多不知道怎么查配置文件在哪,这里提供一个很简单的方法 使用 php -i 命令可以打印php的详细信息,可以把这堆东西输出一下 php -i > outputphp.txt,结合 grep 查找命令 php -i| grep php.ini 打印结果如下 Config...... 展开详请

归档存储采用的存储介质是什么, 安全可靠吗?

滑稽园扛把子

Swoole · PHP开发工程师 (已认证)

As a PHP Developer
推荐
归档存储主要是针对海量、重要且访问频率极低的非结构化数据进行长期的归档保存和备份管理。 在数据安全层面,归档存储提供数据锁定机制,防止数据被修改和删除,保障数据安全。 技术架构: image.png 与对象存储的差异 归档存储 CAS 是一项离线存储服务,不同于在线的对象存储 ...... 展开详请

在按官网手册排错后依然提示1004错误?

看你的代码好像是短信相关的代码,1004错误代表请求包解析失败,通常情况下是由于没有遵守 API 接口说明规范导致的。 建议您通过以下方式定位解决: 首先,要确认发送的请求是否是标准的 json 格式; 第二,检查是否有将单引号当做双引号使用(json 标准应该是双引号); 第...... 展开详请

redis数据库应该怎样连接???

滑稽园扛把子

Swoole · PHP开发工程师 (已认证)

As a PHP Developer
推荐
实例初始化完成后,连接腾讯云Redis时,需要输入设置的密码。主从版和集群版的连接示例如下 主从版连接示例 主从版支持2种格式 • 格式1,“实例id:密码”的格式类型,例如您的实例id是crs-bkuza6i3,设置的密码是abcd1234,则连接命令如下 redis-cli ...... 展开详请

如何使用holer实现从外网访问本地WEB应用?

Dingda

Dingda · 站长 (已认证)

多一些不为什么的坚持
推荐
解压holer软件 获取holer access key信息: 在holer官网上申请专属的holer access key或者使用开源社区上公开的access key信息。 启动holer服务: Windows系统平台: 打开CMD窗口进入可执行程序所在的目录下,执行命令:...... 展开详请

所属标签

扫码关注云+社区