HTML5中Canvas如何调整大小(缩小)图像高质量?

内容来源于 Stack Overflow,并遵循CC BY-SA 3.0许可协议进行翻译与使用

  • 回答 (2)
  • 关注 (0)
  • 查看 (5154)

使用html5 canvas元素在我的浏览器中调整图像大小。事实证明,质量非常低。我发现这一点:缩放<canvas>时禁用插值,但它无助于提高质量。

下面是我的css和js代码以及用Photoshop调出的图像,并在画布API中缩放。

在浏览器中缩放图像时,为了获得最佳质量,我需要做些什么?

注意:想将大图像缩小为小图像,在画布中修改颜色并将画布的结果发送到服务器。

CSS:

canvas, img {
    image-rendering: optimizeQuality;
    image-rendering: -moz-crisp-edges;
    image-rendering: -webkit-optimize-contrast;
    image-rendering: optimize-contrast;
    -ms-interpolation-mode: nearest-neighbor;
}

JS:

var $img = $('<img>');
var $originalCanvas = $('<canvas>');
$img.load(function() {


   var originalContext = $originalCanvas[0].getContext('2d');   
   originalContext.imageSmoothingEnabled = false;
   originalContext.webkitImageSmoothingEnabled = false;
   originalContext.mozImageSmoothingEnabled = false;
   originalContext.drawImage(this, 0, 0, 379, 500);
});

该图片使用photoshop重新调整大小:

在画布上调整图像大小:

编辑:

我试图按照以下几个步骤进行多级缩减:

在HTML5画布和 Html5画布drawImage中调整图像大小:如何应用抗锯齿

这是我用过的功能:

function resizeCanvasImage(img, canvas, maxWidth, maxHeight) {
    var imgWidth = img.width, 
        imgHeight = img.height;

    var ratio = 1, ratio1 = 1, ratio2 = 1;
    ratio1 = maxWidth / imgWidth;
    ratio2 = maxHeight / imgHeight;

    // Use the smallest ratio that the image best fit into the maxWidth x maxHeight box.
    if (ratio1 < ratio2) {
        ratio = ratio1;
    }
    else {
        ratio = ratio2;
    }

    var canvasContext = canvas.getContext("2d");
    var canvasCopy = document.createElement("canvas");
    var copyContext = canvasCopy.getContext("2d");
    var canvasCopy2 = document.createElement("canvas");
    var copyContext2 = canvasCopy2.getContext("2d");
    canvasCopy.width = imgWidth;
    canvasCopy.height = imgHeight;  
    copyContext.drawImage(img, 0, 0);

    // init
    canvasCopy2.width = imgWidth;
    canvasCopy2.height = imgHeight;        
    copyContext2.drawImage(canvasCopy, 0, 0, canvasCopy.width, canvasCopy.height, 0, 0, canvasCopy2.width, canvasCopy2.height);


    var rounds = 2;
    var roundRatio = ratio * rounds;
    for (var i = 1; i <= rounds; i++) {
        console.log("Step: "+i);

        // tmp
        canvasCopy.width = imgWidth * roundRatio / i;
        canvasCopy.height = imgHeight * roundRatio / i;

        copyContext.drawImage(canvasCopy2, 0, 0, canvasCopy2.width, canvasCopy2.height, 0, 0, canvasCopy.width, canvasCopy.height);

        // copy back
        canvasCopy2.width = imgWidth * roundRatio / i;
        canvasCopy2.height = imgHeight * roundRatio / i;
        copyContext2.drawImage(canvasCopy, 0, 0, canvasCopy.width, canvasCopy.height, 0, 0, canvasCopy2.width, canvasCopy2.height);

    } // end for


    // copy back to canvas
    canvas.width = imgWidth * roundRatio / rounds;
    canvas.height = imgHeight * roundRatio / rounds;
    canvasContext.drawImage(canvasCopy2, 0, 0, canvasCopy2.width, canvasCopy2.height, 0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height);


}

如果我使用2步缩小尺寸,结果如下:

如果我使用3步缩小尺寸,结果如下:

如果我使用4步缩小尺寸,结果如下:

如果我使用20步缩小尺寸,结果如下:

注意:事实证明,从1步到2步,图像质量有很大改善,但添加到该过程的步骤越多,图像变得越模糊。

有没有办法解决添加的步骤越多,图像越模糊的问题?

编辑2013-10-04:尝试了GameAlchemist的算法。这是与Photoshop相比的结果。

PhotoShop图片:

GameAlchemist的算法:

提问于
用户回答回答于

由于问题是缩小图像的大小,因此在讨论插值时没有意义,这是关于创建像素的。这里的问题是缩减采样。

为了对图像进行下采样,我们需要将原始图像中每个p * p像素的平方转换为目标图像中的单个像素。

由于性能的原因,浏览器做了一个非常简单的向下采样:为了构建较小的图像,他们将只选择源中的一个像素,并将其值用于目标。这会“忘记”一些细节并增加噪音。

但是有一个例外:由于2X图像下采样的计算非常简单(平均4个像素来制作),并且用于视网膜/ HiDPI像素,因此这种情况可以正确处理 - 浏览器确实使用4个像素来制作一-。

但是...如果多次使用2倍下采样,将面临连续舍入误差会增加太多噪声的问题。 更糟的是,不会总是通过两次幂调整大小,并调整到最近的功率+最后一次调整大小非常嘈杂。

所寻求的是像素完美的下采样,即:对图像进行重新采样,将所有输入像素都考虑在内 - 不管比例如何。 为此,对于每个输入像素,我们必须计算其对一个,两个或四个目标像素的贡献,这取决于输入像素的缩放投影恰好在目标像素内,与X边界,Y边界或两者重叠。 (一个计划在这里会很好,但我没有一个。)

下面是一个范例,画布比例与我的像素完美比例的1/3比例。

请注意,图片可能会在浏览器中缩放,并被SO.jpegized。 但我们看到,尤其是在袋熊后面的草地和其右边的分支上,噪音要少得多。毛皮上的噪音使其更加对比,但看起来他有白色头发 - 不像源图片。 正确的形象不太吸引人,但明确更好。

以下是执行像素完美缩减的代码:

// scales the image by (float) scale < 1
// returns a canvas containing the scaled image.
function downScaleImage(img, scale) {
    var imgCV = document.createElement('canvas');
    imgCV.width = img.width;
    imgCV.height = img.height;
    var imgCtx = imgCV.getContext('2d');
    imgCtx.drawImage(img, 0, 0);
    return downScaleCanvas(imgCV, scale);
}

// scales the canvas by (float) scale < 1
// returns a new canvas containing the scaled image.
function downScaleCanvas(cv, scale) {
    if (!(scale < 1) || !(scale > 0)) throw ('scale must be a positive number <1 ');
    var sqScale = scale * scale; // square scale = area of source pixel within target
    var sw = cv.width; // source image width
    var sh = cv.height; // source image height
    var tw = Math.floor(sw * scale); // target image width
    var th = Math.floor(sh * scale); // target image height
    var sx = 0, sy = 0, sIndex = 0; // source x,y, index within source array
    var tx = 0, ty = 0, yIndex = 0, tIndex = 0; // target x,y, x,y index within target array
    var tX = 0, tY = 0; // rounded tx, ty
    var w = 0, nw = 0, wx = 0, nwx = 0, wy = 0, nwy = 0; // weight / next weight x / y
    // weight is weight of current source point within target.
    // next weight is weight of current source point within next target's point.
    var crossX = false; // does scaled px cross its current px right border ?
    var crossY = false; // does scaled px cross its current px bottom border ?
    var sBuffer = cv.getContext('2d').
    getImageData(0, 0, sw, sh).data; // source buffer 8 bit rgba
    var tBuffer = new Float32Array(3 * tw * th); // target buffer Float32 rgb
    var sR = 0, sG = 0,  sB = 0; // source's current point r,g,b
    /* untested !
    var sA = 0;  //source alpha  */    

    for (sy = 0; sy < sh; sy++) {
        ty = sy * scale; // y src position within target
        tY = 0 | ty;     // rounded : target pixel's y
        yIndex = 3 * tY * tw;  // line index within target array
        crossY = (tY != (0 | ty + scale)); 
        if (crossY) { // if pixel is crossing botton target pixel
            wy = (tY + 1 - ty); // weight of point within target pixel
            nwy = (ty + scale - tY - 1); // ... within y+1 target pixel
        }
        for (sx = 0; sx < sw; sx++, sIndex += 4) {
            tx = sx * scale; // x src position within target
            tX = 0 |  tx;    // rounded : target pixel's x
            tIndex = yIndex + tX * 3; // target pixel index within target array
            crossX = (tX != (0 | tx + scale));
            if (crossX) { // if pixel is crossing target pixel's right
                wx = (tX + 1 - tx); // weight of point within target pixel
                nwx = (tx + scale - tX - 1); // ... within x+1 target pixel
            }
            sR = sBuffer[sIndex    ];   // retrieving r,g,b for curr src px.
            sG = sBuffer[sIndex + 1];
            sB = sBuffer[sIndex + 2];

            /* !! untested : handling alpha !!
               sA = sBuffer[sIndex + 3];
               if (!sA) continue;
               if (sA != 0xFF) {
                   sR = (sR * sA) >> 8;  // or use /256 instead ??
                   sG = (sG * sA) >> 8;
                   sB = (sB * sA) >> 8;
               }
            */
            if (!crossX && !crossY) { // pixel does not cross
                // just add components weighted by squared scale.
                tBuffer[tIndex    ] += sR * sqScale;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 1] += sG * sqScale;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 2] += sB * sqScale;
            } else if (crossX && !crossY) { // cross on X only
                w = wx * scale;
                // add weighted component for current px
                tBuffer[tIndex    ] += sR * w;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 1] += sG * w;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 2] += sB * w;
                // add weighted component for next (tX+1) px                
                nw = nwx * scale
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3] += sR * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 4] += sG * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 5] += sB * nw;
            } else if (crossY && !crossX) { // cross on Y only
                w = wy * scale;
                // add weighted component for current px
                tBuffer[tIndex    ] += sR * w;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 1] += sG * w;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 2] += sB * w;
                // add weighted component for next (tY+1) px                
                nw = nwy * scale
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw    ] += sR * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 1] += sG * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 2] += sB * nw;
            } else { // crosses both x and y : four target points involved
                // add weighted component for current px
                w = wx * wy;
                tBuffer[tIndex    ] += sR * w;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 1] += sG * w;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 2] += sB * w;
                // for tX + 1; tY px
                nw = nwx * wy;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3] += sR * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 4] += sG * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 5] += sB * nw;
                // for tX ; tY + 1 px
                nw = wx * nwy;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw    ] += sR * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 1] += sG * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 2] += sB * nw;
                // for tX + 1 ; tY +1 px
                nw = nwx * nwy;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 3] += sR * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 4] += sG * nw;
                tBuffer[tIndex + 3 * tw + 5] += sB * nw;
            }
        } // end for sx 
    } // end for sy

    // create result canvas
    var resCV = document.createElement('canvas');
    resCV.width = tw;
    resCV.height = th;
    var resCtx = resCV.getContext('2d');
    var imgRes = resCtx.getImageData(0, 0, tw, th);
    var tByteBuffer = imgRes.data;
    // convert float32 array into a UInt8Clamped Array
    var pxIndex = 0; //  
    for (sIndex = 0, tIndex = 0; pxIndex < tw * th; sIndex += 3, tIndex += 4, pxIndex++) {
        tByteBuffer[tIndex] = Math.ceil(tBuffer[sIndex]);
        tByteBuffer[tIndex + 1] = Math.ceil(tBuffer[sIndex + 1]);
        tByteBuffer[tIndex + 2] = Math.ceil(tBuffer[sIndex + 2]);
        tByteBuffer[tIndex + 3] = 255;
    }
    // writing result to canvas.
    resCtx.putImageData(imgRes, 0, 0);
    return resCV;
}

它的内存贪婪,因为需要一个浮点缓冲区来存储目标图像的中间值,如果我们计算结果画布,我们使用该算法中源图像内存的6倍)。 它代价很高,因为无论目标大小如何,每个源像素都会使用,并且我们必须为getImageData / putImageDate消耗资源,而且速度也很慢。 但是在这种情况下没有办法比处理每个源值更快,情况也并不是那么糟糕:对于我的740 * 556图像,处理需要30到40毫秒。

用户回答回答于

更新: 2.0版(更快,网络工作者+可转移对象)

/**
 * Hermite resize - fast image resize/resample using Hermite filter. 1 cpu version!
 * 
 * @param {HtmlElement} canvas
 * @param {int} width
 * @param {int} height
 * @param {boolean} resize_canvas if true, canvas will be resized. Optional.
 */
function resample_single(canvas, width, height, resize_canvas) {
    var width_source = canvas.width;
    var height_source = canvas.height;
    width = Math.round(width);
    height = Math.round(height);

    var ratio_w = width_source / width;
    var ratio_h = height_source / height;
    var ratio_w_half = Math.ceil(ratio_w / 2);
    var ratio_h_half = Math.ceil(ratio_h / 2);

    var ctx = canvas.getContext("2d");
    var img = ctx.getImageData(0, 0, width_source, height_source);
    var img2 = ctx.createImageData(width, height);
    var data = img.data;
    var data2 = img2.data;

    for (var j = 0; j < height; j++) {
        for (var i = 0; i < width; i++) {
            var x2 = (i + j * width) * 4;
            var weight = 0;
            var weights = 0;
            var weights_alpha = 0;
            var gx_r = 0;
            var gx_g = 0;
            var gx_b = 0;
            var gx_a = 0;
            var center_y = (j + 0.5) * ratio_h;
            var yy_start = Math.floor(j * ratio_h);
            var yy_stop = Math.ceil((j + 1) * ratio_h);
            for (var yy = yy_start; yy < yy_stop; yy++) {
                var dy = Math.abs(center_y - (yy + 0.5)) / ratio_h_half;
                var center_x = (i + 0.5) * ratio_w;
                var w0 = dy * dy; //pre-calc part of w
                var xx_start = Math.floor(i * ratio_w);
                var xx_stop = Math.ceil((i + 1) * ratio_w);
                for (var xx = xx_start; xx < xx_stop; xx++) {
                    var dx = Math.abs(center_x - (xx + 0.5)) / ratio_w_half;
                    var w = Math.sqrt(w0 + dx * dx);
                    if (w >= 1) {
                        //pixel too far
                        continue;
                    }
                    //hermite filter
                    weight = 2 * w * w * w - 3 * w * w + 1;
                    var pos_x = 4 * (xx + yy * width_source);
                    //alpha
                    gx_a += weight * data[pos_x + 3];
                    weights_alpha += weight;
                    //colors
                    if (data[pos_x + 3] < 255)
                        weight = weight * data[pos_x + 3] / 250;
                    gx_r += weight * data[pos_x];
                    gx_g += weight * data[pos_x + 1];
                    gx_b += weight * data[pos_x + 2];
                    weights += weight;
                }
            }
            data2[x2] = gx_r / weights;
            data2[x2 + 1] = gx_g / weights;
            data2[x2 + 2] = gx_b / weights;
            data2[x2 + 3] = gx_a / weights_alpha;
        }
    }
    //clear and resize canvas
    if (resize_canvas === true) {
        canvas.width = width;
        canvas.height = height;
    } else {
        ctx.clearRect(0, 0, width_source, height_source);
    }

    //draw
    ctx.putImageData(img2, 0, 0);
}

扫码关注云+社区

领取腾讯云代金券