如何基于T-SQL进行模糊匹配?

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我需要一个方法来列出这些副本:

tabledata:

personid     1
firstname    "Carl"
lastname     "Anderson"
addressindex 1

personid     2
firstname    "Carl Peter"
lastname     "Anderson"
addressindex 1

如果我要在所有列上完全匹配,我知道如何做到这一点,但是我需要模糊匹配来完成这个任务(从上面的例子中),结果如下:

Row     personid      addressindex     lastname     firstname
1       2             1                Anderson     Carl Peter
2       1             1                Anderson     Carl
.....
提问于
用户回答回答于

代码如下:

if object_id('tempdb..#similar') is not null drop table #similar
select a.id, (
    select top 1 x.id
   from MyTable x
   where x.id <> a.id
   order by dbo.GetSimilarityScore(a.MyField, x.MyField) desc
) as MostSimilarId
into #similar
from MyTable a

select *, dbo.GetSimilarityScore(a.MyField, c.MyField)
from MyTable a
join #similar b on a.id = b.id
join MyTable c on b.MostSimilarId = c.id

以下是CLR UDF:

''' <summary>
''' Compute the distance between two strings.
''' </summary>
''' <param name="s1">The first of the two strings.</param>
''' <param name="s2">The second of the two strings.</param>
''' <returns>The Levenshtein cost.</returns>
<Microsoft.SqlServer.Server.SqlFunction()> _
Public Shared Function ComputeLevenstheinDistance(ByVal string1 As SqlString, ByVal string2 As SqlString) As SqlInt32
    If string1.IsNull OrElse string2.IsNull Then Return SqlInt32.Null
    Dim s1 As String = string1.Value
    Dim s2 As String = string2.Value

    Dim n As Integer = s1.Length
    Dim m As Integer = s2.Length
    Dim d As Integer(,) = New Integer(n, m) {}

    ' Step 1
    If n = 0 Then Return m
    If m = 0 Then Return n

    ' Step 2
    For i As Integer = 0 To n
        d(i, 0) = i
    Next

    For j As Integer = 0 To m
        d(0, j) = j
    Next

    ' Step 3
    For i As Integer = 1 To n
        'Step 4
        For j As Integer = 1 To m
            ' Step 5
            Dim cost As Integer = If((s2(j - 1) = s1(i - 1)), 0, 1)

            ' Step 6
            d(i, j) = Math.Min(Math.Min(d(i - 1, j) + 1, d(i, j - 1) + 1), d(i - 1, j - 1) + cost)
        Next
    Next
    ' Step 7
    Return d(n, m)
End Function

''' <summary>
''' Returns a score between 0.0-1.0 indicating how closely two strings match.  1.0 is a 100%
''' T-SQL equality match, and the score goes down from there towards 0.0 for less similar strings.
''' </summary>
<Microsoft.SqlServer.Server.SqlFunction()> _
Public Shared Function GetSimilarityScore(string1 As SqlString, string2 As SqlString) As SqlDouble
    If string1.IsNull OrElse string2.IsNull Then Return SqlInt32.Null

    Dim s1 As String = string1.Value.ToUpper().TrimEnd(" "c)
    Dim s2 As String = string2.Value.ToUpper().TrimEnd(" "c)
    If s1 = s2 Then Return 1.0F ' At this point, T-SQL would consider them the same, so I will too

    Dim flatLevScore As Double = InternalGetSimilarityScore(s1, s2)

    Dim letterS1 As String = GetLetterSimilarityString(s1)
    Dim letterS2 As String = GetLetterSimilarityString(s2)
    Dim letterScore As Double = InternalGetSimilarityScore(letterS1, letterS2)

    'Dim wordS1 As String = GetWordSimilarityString(s1)
    'Dim wordS2 As String = GetWordSimilarityString(s2)
    'Dim wordScore As Double = InternalGetSimilarityScore(wordS1, wordS2)

    If flatLevScore = 1.0F AndAlso letterScore = 1.0F Then Return 1.0F
    If flatLevScore = 0.0F AndAlso letterScore = 0.0F Then Return 0.0F

    ' Return weighted result
    Return (flatLevScore * 0.2F) + (letterScore * 0.8F)
End Function

Private Shared Function InternalGetSimilarityScore(s1 As String, s2 As String) As Double
    Dim dist As SqlInt32 = ComputeLevenstheinDistance(s1, s2)
    Dim maxLen As Integer = If(s1.Length > s2.Length, s1.Length, s2.Length)
    If maxLen = 0 Then Return 1.0F
    Return 1.0F - Convert.ToDouble(dist.Value) / Convert.ToDouble(maxLen)
End Function

''' <summary>
''' Sorts all the alpha numeric characters in the string in alphabetical order
''' and removes everything else.
''' </summary>
Private Shared Function GetLetterSimilarityString(s1 As String) As String
    Dim allChars = If(s1, "").ToUpper().ToCharArray()
    Array.Sort(allChars)
    Dim result As New StringBuilder()
    For Each ch As Char In allChars
        If Char.IsLetterOrDigit(ch) Then
            result.Append(ch)
        End If
    Next
    Return result.ToString()
End Function

''' <summary>
''' Removes all non-alpha numeric characters and then sorts
''' the words in alphabetical order.
''' </summary>
Private Shared Function GetWordSimilarityString(s1 As String) As String
    Dim words As New List(Of String)()
    Dim curWord As StringBuilder = Nothing
    For Each ch As Char In If(s1, "").ToUpper()
        If Char.IsLetterOrDigit(ch) Then
            If curWord Is Nothing Then
                curWord = New StringBuilder()
            End If
            curWord.Append(ch)
        Else
            If curWord IsNot Nothing Then
                words.Add(curWord.ToString())
                curWord = Nothing
            End If
        End If
    Next
    If curWord IsNot Nothing Then
        words.Add(curWord.ToString())
    End If

    words.Sort(StringComparer.OrdinalIgnoreCase)
    Return String.Join(" ", words.ToArray())
End Function

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