VisualStateManager不能正常工作?

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以下问题一直困扰着我好几天了,但我只能将它简化成最简单的形式。考虑以下XAML:

<Window x:Class="VSMTest.MainWindow"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        Title="MainWindow" Height="350" Width="525">

    <Window.Resources>
        <Style TargetType="CheckBox">
            <Setter Property="Margin" Value="3"/>
            <Setter Property="Template">
                <Setter.Value>
                    <ControlTemplate TargetType="CheckBox">
                        <Grid x:Name="Root">
                            <Grid.Background>
                                <SolidColorBrush x:Name="brush" Color="White"/>
                            </Grid.Background>

                            <VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>
                                <VisualStateGroup Name="CheckStates">
                                    <VisualStateGroup.Transitions>
                                        <VisualTransition To="Checked" GeneratedDuration="00:00:03">
                                            <Storyboard Name="CheckingStoryboard">
                                                <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="brush" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">
                                                    <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="0" Value="LightGreen"/>
                                                </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>
                                            </Storyboard>
                                        </VisualTransition>

                                        <VisualTransition To="Unchecked" GeneratedDuration="00:00:03">
                                            <Storyboard Name="UncheckingStoryboard">
                                                <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="brush" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">
                                                    <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="0" Value="LightSalmon"/>
                                                </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>
                                            </Storyboard>
                                        </VisualTransition>
                                    </VisualStateGroup.Transitions>

                                    <VisualState Name="Checked">
                                        <Storyboard Name="CheckedStoryboard" Duration="0">
                                            <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="brush" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">
                                                <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="0" Value="Green"/>
                                            </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </VisualState>

                                    <VisualState Name="Unchecked">
                                        <Storyboard Name="UncheckedStoryboard" Duration="0">
                                            <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="brush" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">
                                                <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="0" Value="Red"/>
                                            </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>
                                        </Storyboard>
                                    </VisualState>
                                </VisualStateGroup>
                            </VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>

                            <ContentPresenter/>
                        </Grid>
                    </ControlTemplate>
                </Setter.Value>
            </Setter>
        </Style>
    </Window.Resources>

    <StackPanel>
        <CheckBox x:Name="cb1">Check Box 1</CheckBox>
        <CheckBox x:Name="cb2">Check Box 2</CheckBox>
        <CheckBox x:Name="cb3">Check Box 3</CheckBox>
    </StackPanel>
</Window>

它只是重新模板CheckBox控件,使其背景依赖于其状态:

  • 选中=绿色
  • 未选中=红色
  • 检查(过渡)=淡绿色
  • 取消选中(转换)=淡红色

因此,当您选中其中一个复选框时,您会希望它在短时间内变为浅绿色,然后变为绿色。同样,如果取消选中,您会希望它在短时间内变为淡红色,然后变为红色。

它通常就是这样。但不总是。

用程序播放足够长的时间(我可以在30秒左右得到它),你会发现过渡动画有时会在视觉状态下胜过它。也就是说,复选框在选中时将继续显示为浅绿色,未选中时则显示为浅红色。下面是一个屏幕截图,说明我的意思,在完成转换后3秒后取得很好的效果:

发生这种情况时,并不是因为控件未成功转换到目标状态。它声称处于正确的状态。我通过在调试器中检查以下内容(针对上述屏幕截图中记录的特定情况)来验证此情况:

var vsgs = VisualStateManager.GetVisualStateGroups(VisualTreeHelper.GetChild(this.cb2, 0) as FrameworkElement);
var vsg = vsgs[0];
// this is correctly reported as "Unselected"
var currentState = vsg.CurrentState.Name;

如果我为动画启用跟踪,则当转换成功完成时,我会得到以下输出:

System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='44177654'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='6148812'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='8261103'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='36205315'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='18626439'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 3 : Storyboard has been removed; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='44177654'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 3 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='36893403'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='CheckingStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='49590434'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='<null>'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 3 : Storyboard has been removed; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='36893403'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='CheckingStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 3 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 3 : Storyboard has been removed; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='49590434'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='<null>'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 3 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='16977025'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='CheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 3 : Storyboard has been removed; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='16977025'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='CheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 3 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='16977025'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='CheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 

当转换无法成功完成时,我会得到以下输出:

System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='44177654'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='6148812'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='8261103'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='36205315'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='18626439'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 3 : Storyboard has been removed; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='44177654'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='UncheckedStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 3 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='36893403'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='CheckingStoryboard'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 
System.Windows.Media.Animation Start: 1 : Storyboard has begun; Storyboard='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; Storyboard.HashCode='49590434'; Storyboard.Type='System.Windows.Media.Animation.Storyboard'; StoryboardName='<null>'; TargetElement='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; TargetElement.HashCode='41837403'; TargetElement.Type='System.Windows.Controls.Grid'; NameScope='<null>'
System.Windows.Media.Animation Stop: 1 : 

前12行与转换成功时完全相同,但最后10行完全丢失!

我已经通读了我能找到的所有VSM文档,并且无法对这种不稳定行为进行解释。

我是否认为这是VSM中的一个错误?有没有对这个问题有任何已知的解释或解决方法?

提问于
用户回答回答于

首先,我将我的repro项目降级到.NET 3.5,并从CodePlex中获取WPF Toolkit源代码。我将WPF Toolkit项目添加到了我的解决方案中,并从Repro项目中添加了对它的引用。

接下来,我运行该应用程序,并确保我仍然可以重现该问题。果然,这样做很容易。

然后,我打开VisualStateManager.cs文件并开始在关键位置添加一些诊断信息,告诉我哪些代码正在运行,哪些不是。通过添加这些诊断程序并比较从良好转换到错误转换的输出,我很快就能够确定下列代码在问题表现出来时并未运行:

// Hook up generated Storyboard's Completed event handler
dynamicTransition.Completed += delegate
{
    if (transition.Storyboard == null ||
        transition.ExplicitStoryboardCompleted)
    {
        if (ShouldRunStateStoryboard(control, element, state, group))
        {
            group.StartNewThenStopOld(element, state.Storyboard);
        }

        group.RaiseCurrentStateChanged(element, lastState, state,
                                        control);
    }

    transition.DynamicStoryboardCompleted = true;
};

所以这个bug的性质从VSM的问题转移到了一个Storyboard.Completed并不总是被提出的问题上。这是我以前经历过的一个问题,似乎是任何WPF开发人员在动画方面做出甚至稍微不同寻常的事情都非常焦虑的原因。

我在VisualStateManager.cs中更改了这一行:

group.StartNewThenStopOld(element, transition.Storyboard, dynamicTransition); 

为此:

var masterStoryboard = new Storyboard();

if (transition.Storyboard != null)
{
    masterStoryboard.Children.Add(transition.Storyboard);
}

masterStoryboard.Children.Add(dynamicTransition);
group.StartNewThenStopOld(element, masterStoryboard);
用户回答回答于

看起来好像Duration="0"在Checked和Unchecked故事板上设置是罪魁祸首。删除它可以解决问题。我不确定我是否理解为什么,除非故事板以某种方式与相应的转换链接。

不过,我想我无论如何都找到了一个更清洁的解决方案。如果将ControlTemplate更改为此,则它会在没有转换的情况下完成相同的操作...

<ControlTemplate TargetType="CheckBox">
  <Grid x:Name="Root">
      <Grid.Background>
          <SolidColorBrush x:Name="brush" Color="White"/>
      </Grid.Background>

      <VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>
          <VisualStateGroup Name="CheckStates">
              <VisualState Name="Checked">                                      
                  <Storyboard x:Name="CheckedStoryboard">
                      <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="brush" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">
                        <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="0" Value="LightGreen"/>
                        <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="00:00:03" Value="Green"/>
                      </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>
                  </Storyboard>
              </VisualState>

              <VisualState Name="Unchecked">
                  <Storyboard x:Name="UncheckedStoryboard">
                      <ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames Storyboard.TargetName="brush" Storyboard.TargetProperty="Color">
                        <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="0" Value="LightSalmon"/>
                        <DiscreteColorKeyFrame KeyTime="00:00:03" Value="Red"/>
                      </ColorAnimationUsingKeyFrames>
                  </Storyboard>
              </VisualState>
          </VisualStateGroup>
      </VisualStateManager.VisualStateGroups>

      <ContentPresenter/>
  </Grid>
</ControlTemplate>

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