Matplotlib有在轴坐标下绘制对角线的功能吗?

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Matplotlib轴具有以下功能axhlineaxvline用于在给定的y或x坐标(分别)上绘制水平或垂直线,而不依赖于轴上的数据比例尺。

是否有类似的函数来绘制常量对角线?例如,如果我有一个具有类似域的变量散点图:

mean, cov = [0, 0], [(1, .6), (.6, 1)]
x, y = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean, cov, 100).T
y += x + 1
f, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(6, 6))
ax.scatter(x, y, c=".3")
ax.plot([-3, 3], [-3, 3], ls="--", c=".3")
ax.set(xlim=(-3, 3), ylim=(-3, 3))

当然,这可以通过抓取轴限值来编程完成,(ax.get_xlim()(等等),但如果有更多的数据可能会在plot上结束并改变限制。

提问于
用户回答回答于

def add_identity(axes, *line_args, **line_kwargs):
    identity, = axes.plot([], [], *line_args, **line_kwargs)
    def callback(axes):
        low_x, high_x = axes.get_xlim()
        low_y, high_y = axes.get_ylim()
        low = max(low_x, low_y)
        high = min(high_x, high_y)
        identity.set_data([low, high], [low, high])
    callback(axes)
    axes.callbacks.connect('xlim_changed', callback)
    axes.callbacks.connect('ylim_changed', callback)
    return axes

示例用法:

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

mean, cov = [0, 0], [(1, .6), (.6, 1)]
x, y = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean, cov, 100).T
y += x + 1

f, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(6, 6))
ax.scatter(x, y, c=".3")
add_identity(ax, color='r', ls='--')

plt.show()
用户回答回答于

import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

mean, cov = [0, 0], [(1, .6), (.6, 1)]
x, y = np.random.multivariate_normal(mean, cov, 100).T
y += x + 1

f, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(6, 6))

ax.scatter(x, y, c=".3")
ax.set(xlim=(-3, 3), ylim=(-3, 3))

# Plot your initial diagonal line based on the starting
# xlims and ylims.
diag_line, = ax.plot(ax.get_xlim(), ax.get_ylim(), ls="--", c=".3")

def on_change(axes):
    # When this function is called it checks the current
    # values of xlim and ylim and modifies diag_line
    # accordingly.
    x_lims = ax.get_xlim()
    y_lims = ax.get_ylim()
    diag_line.set_data(x_lims, y_lims)

# Connect two callbacks to your axis instance.
# These will call the function "on_change" whenever
# xlim or ylim is changed.
ax.callbacks.connect('xlim_changed', on_change)
ax.callbacks.connect('ylim_changed', on_change)

plt.show()

请注意,如果不希望对角线随缩放而改变,那么只需删除下面的所有内容diag_line, = ax.plot(...

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