如何定义matplotlib中颜色映射的中点?

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我想设置彩色地图的中间点(我的数据从-5到10,我希望中间是零。)。我认为做这件事的方法是对规范进行子类化和使用规范,但我没有找到任何例子。

提问于
用户回答回答于

下面是一个子类规范化的解决方案。使用它

norm = MidPointNorm(midpoint=3)
imshow(X, norm=norm)

这是班级:

from numpy import ma
from matplotlib import cbook
from matplotlib.colors import Normalize

class MidPointNorm(Normalize):    
    def __init__(self, midpoint=0, vmin=None, vmax=None, clip=False):
        Normalize.__init__(self,vmin, vmax, clip)
        self.midpoint = midpoint

    def __call__(self, value, clip=None):
        if clip is None:
            clip = self.clip

        result, is_scalar = self.process_value(value)

        self.autoscale_None(result)
        vmin, vmax, midpoint = self.vmin, self.vmax, self.midpoint

        if not (vmin < midpoint < vmax):
            raise ValueError("midpoint must be between maxvalue and minvalue.")       
        elif vmin == vmax:
            result.fill(0) # Or should it be all masked? Or 0.5?
        elif vmin > vmax:
            raise ValueError("maxvalue must be bigger than minvalue")
        else:
            vmin = float(vmin)
            vmax = float(vmax)
            if clip:
                mask = ma.getmask(result)
                result = ma.array(np.clip(result.filled(vmax), vmin, vmax),
                                  mask=mask)

            # ma division is very slow; we can take a shortcut
            resdat = result.data

            #First scale to -1 to 1 range, than to from 0 to 1.
            resdat -= midpoint            
            resdat[resdat>0] /= abs(vmax - midpoint)            
            resdat[resdat<0] /= abs(vmin - midpoint)

            resdat /= 2.
            resdat += 0.5
            result = ma.array(resdat, mask=result.mask, copy=False)                

        if is_scalar:
            result = result[0]            
        return result

    def inverse(self, value):
        if not self.scaled():
            raise ValueError("Not invertible until scaled")
        vmin, vmax, midpoint = self.vmin, self.vmax, self.midpoint

        if cbook.iterable(value):
            val = ma.asarray(value)
            val = 2 * (val-0.5)  
            val[val>0]  *= abs(vmax - midpoint)
            val[val<0] *= abs(vmin - midpoint)
            val += midpoint
            return val
        else:
            val = 2 * (val - 0.5)
            if val < 0: 
                return  val*abs(vmin-midpoint) + midpoint
            else:
                return  val*abs(vmax-midpoint) + midpoint
用户回答回答于

功能

import numpy as np
import matplotlib
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1 import AxesGrid

def shiftedColorMap(cmap, start=0, midpoint=0.5, stop=1.0, name='shiftedcmap'):
    '''
    Function to offset the "center" of a colormap. Useful for
    data with a negative min and positive max and you want the
    middle of the colormap's dynamic range to be at zero

    Input
    -----
      cmap : The matplotlib colormap to be altered
      start : Offset from lowest point in the colormap's range.
          Defaults to 0.0 (no lower ofset). Should be between
          0.0 and `midpoint`.
      midpoint : The new center of the colormap. Defaults to 
          0.5 (no shift). Should be between 0.0 and 1.0. In
          general, this should be  1 - vmax/(vmax + abs(vmin))
          For example if your data range from -15.0 to +5.0 and
          you want the center of the colormap at 0.0, `midpoint`
          should be set to  1 - 5/(5 + 15)) or 0.75
      stop : Offset from highets point in the colormap's range.
          Defaults to 1.0 (no upper ofset). Should be between
          `midpoint` and 1.0.
    '''
    cdict = {
        'red': [],
        'green': [],
        'blue': [],
        'alpha': []
    }

    # regular index to compute the colors
    reg_index = np.linspace(start, stop, 257)

    # shifted index to match the data
    shift_index = np.hstack([
        np.linspace(0.0, midpoint, 128, endpoint=False), 
        np.linspace(midpoint, 1.0, 129, endpoint=True)
    ])

    for ri, si in zip(reg_index, shift_index):
        r, g, b, a = cmap(ri)

        cdict['red'].append((si, r, r))
        cdict['green'].append((si, g, g))
        cdict['blue'].append((si, b, b))
        cdict['alpha'].append((si, a, a))

    newcmap = matplotlib.colors.LinearSegmentedColormap(name, cdict)
    plt.register_cmap(cmap=newcmap)

    return newcmap

例子:

biased_data = np.random.random_integers(low=-15, high=5, size=(37,37))

orig_cmap = matplotlib.cm.coolwarm
shifted_cmap = shiftedColorMap(orig_cmap, midpoint=0.75, name='shifted')
shrunk_cmap = shiftedColorMap(orig_cmap, start=0.15, midpoint=0.75, stop=0.85, name='shrunk')

fig = plt.figure(figsize=(6,6))
grid = AxesGrid(fig, 111, nrows_ncols=(2, 2), axes_pad=0.5,
                label_mode="1", share_all=True,
                cbar_location="right", cbar_mode="each",
                cbar_size="7%", cbar_pad="2%")

# normal cmap
im0 = grid[0].imshow(biased_data, interpolation="none", cmap=orig_cmap)
grid.cbar_axes[0].colorbar(im0)
grid[0].set_title('Default behavior (hard to see bias)', fontsize=8)

im1 = grid[1].imshow(biased_data, interpolation="none", cmap=orig_cmap, vmax=15, vmin=-15)
grid.cbar_axes[1].colorbar(im1)
grid[1].set_title('Centered zero manually,\nbut lost upper end of dynamic range', fontsize=8)

im2 = grid[2].imshow(biased_data, interpolation="none", cmap=shifted_cmap)
grid.cbar_axes[2].colorbar(im2)
grid[2].set_title('Recentered cmap with function', fontsize=8)

im3 = grid[3].imshow(biased_data, interpolation="none", cmap=shrunk_cmap)
grid.cbar_axes[3].colorbar(im3)
grid[3].set_title('Recentered cmap with function\nand shrunk range', fontsize=8)

for ax in grid:
    ax.set_yticks([])
    ax.set_xticks([])

示例的结果:

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