黑客诞生至今的历史都有哪些重要的时期和人物

新时代的确立不仅是以文化和认知方式上的转型为其特征的,同时往往要造就一个或几个能够代表它自己的、独特的社会群体和阶层,

而黑客显然就是信息时代最令人惊讶的产物之一。

从贝尔发明电话而将信息时代的巨幕逐渐拉开的时候算起,各色各样善于将个人的技术优势凌驾于社会规则之上的黑客组织和个人通过他们自己独特的方式已经将其封印深刻于时代的铭柱之上,

他们像传说中的阿波罗一样,驾驭着技术的马车巡游在世界的每个角落。可以说,黑客早就完成了自我的涅 ,

早以不是依靠盗打几个长途电话或是突破个把防火墙便能获得满足的快乐。实际上,大到国际政治、小到个人隐私,我们如今已经很难指出哪里还听不到黑客们的声音、哪里还见不到黑客的身影。

在下文中我们将一起回顾黑客逐渐成长的岁月,希望能够从中了解这些隐身在技术帷帐之后神秘难测的人。

‖1969以前:萌芽期

早在1878年,贝尔电话公司成立的消息已经迅速引来一群爱戏弄人的少年,他们用自制的交换机中断电话或者胡乱接驳线路。诚然,这帮纯粹为捣蛋而捣蛋的小子称不上什么严格意义上的黑客,但他们却实实在在的应当算作电脑黑客精神上的原型。

至19世纪60年代,黑客家谱中的第一代终于出现,他们对于新兴的电脑科技充满好奇。由于当时的电脑还是那些长达数英里、重达数百吨的大型主机,

而技术人员需要劳师动众才能通过它们完成某项如今不值一哂的工作,为了尽量发挥它们的潜质,最棒的电脑精英们便编写出了一些简洁高效的工作捷径程序。这些捷径往往较原有的程序系统更完善,而这种行为便被称为Hack。

不过,如果要评选早期最具价值的的黑客行为,相信应当是1969年由贝尔实验室两位职员丹尼斯·里奇及肯·汤普森制作的UNIX操作系统,即使两位创造者采用的全然是黑客手法,但实际上毫无“黑”味儿,不仅如此,在某种程度上讲还大大推动了软件科学的发展。

‖1970-1979:成长期

20世纪70年代可以说是黑客的少年时期,随着技艺的日渐成熟,他们心中那些迷蒙而散乱的思想也逐步成型,昔日凭借本能行事的第一代黑客们开始了由蛹化蝶的进程。

大约在1971年,越战老兵约翰·德雷珀发明了利用汽笛吹入电话听筒而成功打免费电话的奇招。

接着,反文化领袖阿比·霍夫曼更明目张胆地出版了一本专门探讨如何入侵电话系统打免费长途的刊物,他极力宣扬个人在大型机构面前应当保有尊严,并鼓吹如果尊严被剥夺人们应当具有反击的权利,他的思想和言论所造就的影响力足足流传了二十多年。

黑客队伍在这个时期日渐壮大,一些后来在IT技术史中占有重要地位的人物开始崭露头角,其中包括苹果机创始人之一的沃兹尼亚克。

越来越多的黑客们在共享着技术所带来的喜悦的时候,发现唯一美中不足的是欠缺互相交流心得的地方。

因此,在1978年,来自芝加哥的兰迪·索萨及沃德·克里斯琴森便制作了第一个供黑客交流的网上公告版,此BBS至今仍在运行之中.

‖The Golden Age (1980-1991)

In 1981 IBM announced a new model — a stand-alone machine, fully loaded with a CPU, software, memory, utilities, storage. They called it the "personal computer." You could go anywhere and do anything with one of these hot rods. Soon kids abandoned their Chevys to explore the guts of a "Commie 64" or a "Trash-80."

The 1983 movie War Games shone a flashlight onto the hidden face of hacking, and warned audiences nationwide that hackers could get into any computer system. Hackers gleaned a different message from the film. It implied that hacking could get you girls. Cute girls.

The territory was changing. More settlers were moving into the online world. ARPANET was morphing into the Internet, and the popularity of bulletin-board systems exploded. In Milwaukee a group of hackers calling themselves the 414’s (their area code) broke into systems at institutions ranging from the Los Alamos Laboratories to Manhattan’s Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Then the cops put the arm on them.

The Great Hacker War

To pinpoint the start of the "Great Hacker War," you’d probably have to go back to 1984, when a guy calling himself Lex Luthor founded the Legion of Doom. Named after a Saturday morning cartoon, the LOD had the reputation of attracting the best of the best — until one of the gang’s brightest young acolytes, a kid named Phiber Optik, feuded with Legion of Doomer Erik Bloodaxe and got tossed out of the clubhouse. Phiber’s friends formed a rival group, the Masters of Deception.

Starting in 1990, LOD and MOD engaged in almost two years of online warfare — jamming phone lines, monitoring calls, trespassing in each other’s private computers. Then the Feds cracked down. For Phiber and friends, that meant jail. It was the end of an era.

‖Crackdown (1986-1994)

With the government online, the fun ended. Just to show that they meant business, Congress passed a law in 1986 called the Federal Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Translation: A felony gets you five. Then along came Robert Morris with his Internet worm in 1988. Crashing 6,000 Net-linked computers earned Morris the distinction of being the first person convicted under the Act’s computer-crime provision. Translation: a $10,000 fine and too many hours of community service.

Soon you needed a scorecard to keep up with the arrests. That same year Kevin Mitnick broke into the Digital Equipment Company’s computer network; he was nabbed and sentenced to a year in jail. Then Kevin #2 — Kevin Poulsen — was indicted on phone-tampering charges. Kevin #2 went on the lam and avoided the long arm of the law for 17 months.

Operation Sundevil was the name the government gave to its ham-handed 1990 attempt to crack down on hackers across the country, including the Legion of Doom. It didn’t work. But the following year Crackdown Redux resulted in jail sentences for four members of the Masters of Deception. Phiber Optik spent a year in federal prison.

Some people just couldn’t learn from their mistakes, though. In February 1995 Kevin Mitnick was arrested again. This time the FBI accused him of stealing 20,000 credit card numbers. He sat in jail for more than a year before pleading guilty in April 1996 to illegal use of stolen cellular telephone numbers.

‖Zero Tolerance (1994-1998)

Seeing Mitnick being led off in chains on national TV soured the public’s romance with online outlaws. Net users were terrified of hackers using tools like "password sniffers" to ferret out private information, or "spoofing," which tricked a machine into giving a hacker access. Call it the end of anarchy, the death of the frontier. Hackers were no longer considered romantic antiheroes, kooky eccentrics who just wanted to learn things. A burgeoning online economy with the promise of conducting the world’s business over the Net needed protection. Suddenly hackers were crooks.

In the summer of 1994 a gang masterminded by a Russian hacker broke into Citibank’s computers and made unauthorized transfers totaling more than $10 million from customers’ accounts. Citibank recovered all but about $400,000, but the scare sealed the deal. The hackers’ arrests created a fraud vacuum out there in cyberspace.

‖Hack 2K (1999+)

As the millenium approached, general cyber-hysteria over the infamous Y2K bug was further inflamed by several serious hacker attacks. Well-documented by the media, these invasions were experienced directly (perhaps for the first time) by the growing masses of casual web surfers. In the second week of February 2000 some of the most popular Internet sites (CNN, Yahoo, E-Bay and Datek) were subject to "denial of service" attacks. Their networks clogged with false requests sent by multiple computers under the control of a single hacker, these commercial sites crashed and lost untold millions in sales. In May, a new virus appeared that spread rapidly around the globe. The "I Love You" virus infected image and sound files and spread quickly by causing copies of itself to be sent to all individuals in an address book.

Recent attacks on seemingly "secure" sites such as The White House, FBI and Microsoft.com have proven that despite massive public and private investment in cyber defense technology and methodology, hackers continue to pose a serious threat to the "information infrastructure."

黑客哲学:没有什么是不可以入侵的,只要我愿意,WAITE ME .

  • 发表于:
  • 原文链接http://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20171228A12DWM00?refer=cp_1026
  • 腾讯「云+社区」是腾讯内容开放平台帐号(企鹅号)传播渠道之一,根据《腾讯内容开放平台服务协议》转载发布内容。
  • 如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

同媒体快讯

扫码关注云+社区

领取腾讯云代金券