EOS.IO宪法草案第二条——财产权

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本号“EOS技术爱好者”翻译了此版本宪法草案其他内容,点击以下标题可跳转到中英文对照版本内容:

Article II - v0.3.0 Draft EOS.IO Constitution - Property Rights

第2条: 0.3.0版本EOS.IO宪法草案——财产权

Thomas Cox

Purpose

As previously discussed in the Design Principles of this Draft, the EOSIO Software will define a blockchain (and community) that is largely property and defined by property rights. The purpose of this article is to establish an individual and inviolable right to property, within the context of the chain's legal and arbitration process.

目的

正如之前的设计原则草案中(https://forums.eosgo.io/discussion/424/design-principles-of-my-v0-1-draft-eos-io-constitution)所讨论的那样,EOSIO软件将定义一个主要是财产并由财产权定义的区块链(和社区)。这篇文章的目的,是在链上的法律和仲裁程序范围内,建立作为个人不可侵犯的财产权。

Text of Article

The rights of contract and of private property shall be sacred, therefore no property shall change hands except with the consent of the owner or by a lawful Arbitrator’s order.

本文内容

合同和私人财产的权利应是神圣的。因此,除非征得所有者的同意,或得到法律许可的仲裁员命令之外,否则任何财产不得转手。

Discussion

Contracts are the primary way property rights are exchanged on a blockchain. Property rights are a cornerstone of all modern democracies and a core value of blockchains in particular.

Article II implies several things:

- If you receive any property in an improper way, i.e. someone sells you a stolen bicycle that they themselves never legally owned and thus never had proper legal title to, then your purchase of that bicycle is null and void. When the true owner shows up, the property law requires you to give up the bicycle. You can attempt to get your money back from the thief.

- You should not buy things unless the seller can prove they own it.

- You should be careful of buying things from sellers who are sketchy, don't have strong identity, don't have insurance, aren't part of a vendor's guild that guarantees the integrity of their members, and who hasn't posted a performance bond. (A 'performance bond' is a pot of money that the vendor owns but cannot quickly withdraw -- therefore if you prevail in a judgment against that vendor, that money is available to be drawn from to pay you.)

The presence of Ricardian contracts attached to each smart contract and each transaction will go a long way to establish the intention of the parties. A typical bike-sale transaction might include provisions like "I the seller guarantee that I have full and proper title to this bike." When that statement turns out to be false, you have a very strong cause of action against the seller for fraud.

On the other hand if a provision reads "I the buyer have had ample opportunity to inspect the title of this bike and I am satisfied of its provenance, and agree to hold the seller harmless in the event of a dispute over title," then if it turned out to be stolen, a very different outcome would ensue -- you would lose the bike and face serious difficulty in pursuing a claim against the seller. (The owner of the stolen bike would still be able to make a claim against the thief, if found, and the seller might also if the seller were duped.)

讨论

在区块链上,合同是财产权交换的主要方式。财产权是所有现代民主制度的基石,尤其是区块链的核心价值。

此第2条包含以下几点:

- 如果你以不正当的方式获得任何财产,比如有人卖给你一辆偷来的自行车,而他们(小偷)从来没有合法拥有过,也就是没有过正当的所有权,那么你购买那辆自行车的行为是无效的。当自行车真正的所有者出现时,财产法要求你将自行车物归原主,而你可以试着从小偷那里追回你的钱。

- 除非卖家能证明他们用有所有权,否则你不应该买东西。

- 当你买东西的时候,你应该注意哪些背景不明朗的卖家,比如没有明确的身份、没有保险、没有行业协会来保证其成员的可信度、没有出示过履约保证书。( “履约保证金” 指的是卖主拥有但不能迅速收回的一笔钱,因此,如果你在和那个卖主的判决中胜诉,这笔钱就可以支付给你了。)

在每一份智能合同和每一笔交易中都有李嘉图合约的存在,这对确立双方的意图有很大的帮助。一个典型的自行车销售交易可能包括一些条款,比如 “我作为卖方,保证这辆自行车全部的和正当的所有权都归属于我。”当这个陈述被证明是错误的,你就有了一个非常强有力的证据来反对卖方欺诈。

另一方面,如果其中一个条款显示 “我作为买方,拥有充足的机会检查这辆自行车的所有权,我对它怎么来的没有任何异议,并对卖方有不损害他方纠纷事件的所有权持同意态度。” 如果之后它被证明是偷来的,截然不同的结果也会随之而来。你将会失去这辆自行车,并在向卖方索赔时面临严重的困难。(自行车被偷的主人仍然可以对小偷提出索赔,如果卖家被骗了,卖家也可以这么做。)

References

Property Rights provisions of 163 national Constitutions

Design Principles

参考链接

https://www.constituteproject.org/search?lang=en&key=proprght&status=in_force

https://forums.eosgo.io/discussion/424/design-principles-of-my-v0-1-draft-eos-io-constitution

(all opinions are my own)

(所有的观点都代表我自己)

本文内容不代表本号任何立场

本文图片来源于网络

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  • 原文链接http://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20180421G15T2000?refer=cp_1026
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