专栏首页音视频技术学习笔记opengl入门-坐标系统(1)

opengl入门-坐标系统(1)

这一讲的理论知识在《计算机视觉基础》一书中都有讲到,依赖简单的线性代数矩阵运算的基础。

  1. 最重要的是要理解坐标系的变换流程:

坐标系变换流程 变换的好处: 1.1 方便计算 1.2 把很复杂的逻辑拆解成一次次独立的简单变换

  1. 旋转后投影的基本案例

旋转后的投影效果 基本代码的套路相同:

需要注意设置着色器里三个变量,至少有三种方法,变化在最后一个变量上,第一种是通过方法去除指针,第二种是取矩阵数组的第一个地址,第三种是直接把矩阵穿进去,本质都是利用c/c++指针的特征

glUniformMatrix4fv(modelLoc, 1, GL_FALSE, glm::value_ptr(model));
glUniformMatrix4fv(viewLoc, 1, GL_FALSE, &view[0][0]);
ourShader.setMat4("projection", projection);
// main 代码
#include <glad/glad.h>
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>
#define STB_IMAGE_IMPLEMENTATION
#include "stb_image.h"

#include <glm/glm.hpp>
#include <glm/gtc/matrix_transform.hpp>
#include <glm/gtc/type_ptr.hpp>

#include "Shader.h"

#include <iostream>

void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height);
void processInput(GLFWwindow *window);

// settings
const unsigned int SCR_WIDTH = 800;
const unsigned int SCR_HEIGHT = 600;

int main()
{
    // glfw: initialize and configure
    // ------------------------------
    glfwInit();
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE);

#ifdef __APPLE__
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_FORWARD_COMPAT, GL_TRUE);
#endif

    // glfw window creation
    // --------------------
    GLFWwindow* window = glfwCreateWindow(SCR_WIDTH, SCR_HEIGHT, "LearnOpenGL", NULL, NULL);
    if (window == NULL)
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to create GLFW window" << std::endl;
        glfwTerminate();
        return -1;
    }
    glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);
    glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(window, framebuffer_size_callback);

    // glad: load all OpenGL function pointers
    // ---------------------------------------
    if (!gladLoadGLLoader((GLADloadproc)glfwGetProcAddress))
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to initialize GLAD" << std::endl;
        return -1;
    }

    // build and compile our shader zprogram
    // ------------------------------------
    Shader ourShader("4.1.texture.vs", "4.1.texture.fs");

    // set up vertex data (and buffer(s)) and configure vertex attributes
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------
    float vertices[] = {
        // positions          // texture coords
         0.5f,  0.5f, 0.0f,   1.0f, 1.0f, // top right
         0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f,   1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom right
        -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f,   0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom left
        -0.5f,  0.5f, 0.0f,   0.0f, 1.0f  // top left
    };
    unsigned int indices[] = {
        0, 1, 3, // first triangle
        1, 2, 3  // second triangle
    };
    unsigned int VBO, VAO, EBO;
    glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &EBO);

    glBindVertexArray(VAO);

    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, EBO);
    glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

    // position attribute
    glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 5 * sizeof(float), (void*)0);
    glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
    // texture coord attribute
    glVertexAttribPointer(1, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 5 * sizeof(float), (void*)(3 * sizeof(float)));
    glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);


    // load and create a texture
    // -------------------------
    unsigned int texture1, texture2;
    // texture 1
    // ---------
    glGenTextures(1, &texture1);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture1);
    // set the texture wrapping parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT);
    // set texture filtering parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    // load image, create texture and generate mipmaps
    int width, height, nrChannels;
    stbi_set_flip_vertically_on_load(true); // tell stb_image.h to flip loaded texture's on the y-axis.
    unsigned char *data = stbi_load("container.jpg", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
    if (data)
    {
        glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, width, height, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data);
        glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
    }
    else
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to load texture" << std::endl;
    }
    stbi_image_free(data);
    // texture 2
    // ---------
    glGenTextures(1, &texture2);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture2);
    // set the texture wrapping parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT);
    // set texture filtering parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    // load image, create texture and generate mipmaps
    data = stbi_load("awesomeface.png", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
    if (data)
    {
        // note that the awesomeface.png has transparency and thus an alpha channel, so make sure to tell OpenGL the data type is of GL_RGBA
        glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, width, height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data);
        glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
    }
    else
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to load texture" << std::endl;
    }
    stbi_image_free(data);

    // tell opengl for each sampler to which texture unit it belongs to (only has to be done once)
    // -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    ourShader.use();
    ourShader.setInt("texture1", 0);
    ourShader.setInt("texture2", 1);


    // render loop
    // -----------
    while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window))
    {
        // input
        // -----
        processInput(window);

        // render
        // ------
        glClearColor(0.2f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 1.0f);
        glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

        // bind textures on corresponding texture units
        glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0);
        glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture1);
        glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1);
        glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture2);

        // get matrix's uniform location and set matrix
        ourShader.use();
        
        
        glm::mat4 model = glm::mat4(1.0f);
        glm::mat4 view = glm::mat4(1.0f);
        glm::mat4 projection = glm::mat4(1.0f);
        
        model = glm::rotate(model, glm::radians(-55.0f), glm::vec3(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f));
        view = glm::translate(view, glm::vec3(0.0f, 0.0f, -3.0f));
        projection = glm::perspective(glm::radians(45.0f), (float)SCR_WIDTH/(float)SCR_HEIGHT, 0.1f, 100.0f);
        
        unsigned int modelLoc = glGetUniformLocation(ourShader.ID, "model");
        unsigned int viewLoc = glGetUniformLocation(ourShader.ID, "view");
        
        glUniformMatrix4fv(modelLoc, 1, GL_FALSE, glm::value_ptr(model));
        glUniformMatrix4fv(viewLoc, 1, GL_FALSE, &view[0][0]);
        
        ourShader.setMat4("projection", projection);
        
     

        // render container
        glBindVertexArray(VAO);
        glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, 0);

        // glfw: swap buffers and poll IO events (keys pressed/released, mouse moved etc.)
        // -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        glfwSwapBuffers(window);
        glfwPollEvents();
    }

    // optional: de-allocate all resources once they've outlived their purpose:
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &VBO);
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &EBO);

    // glfw: terminate, clearing all previously allocated GLFW resources.
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------
    glfwTerminate();
    return 0;
}

// process all input: query GLFW whether relevant keys are pressed/released this frame and react accordingly
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void processInput(GLFWwindow *window)
{
    if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS)
        glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, true);
}

// glfw: whenever the window size changed (by OS or user resize) this callback function executes
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height)
{
    // make sure the viewport matches the new window dimensions; note that width and
    // height will be significantly larger than specified on retina displays.
    glViewport(0, 0, width, height);
}

shader代码,这期的内容增加了矩阵的操作,有些变化

#ifndef SHADER_H
#define SHADER_H

#include <glad/glad.h>

#include <string>
#include <fstream>
#include <sstream>
#include <iostream>

class Shader
{
public:
    unsigned int ID;
    // constructor generates the shader on the fly
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Shader(const char* vertexPath, const char* fragmentPath)
    {
        // 1. retrieve the vertex/fragment source code from filePath
        std::string vertexCode;
        std::string fragmentCode;
        std::ifstream vShaderFile;
        std::ifstream fShaderFile;
        // ensure ifstream objects can throw exceptions:
        vShaderFile.exceptions (std::ifstream::failbit | std::ifstream::badbit);
        fShaderFile.exceptions (std::ifstream::failbit | std::ifstream::badbit);
        try
        {
            // open files
            vShaderFile.open(vertexPath);
            fShaderFile.open(fragmentPath);
            std::stringstream vShaderStream, fShaderStream;
            // read file's buffer contents into streams
            vShaderStream << vShaderFile.rdbuf();
            fShaderStream << fShaderFile.rdbuf();
            // close file handlers
            vShaderFile.close();
            fShaderFile.close();
            // convert stream into string
            vertexCode   = vShaderStream.str();
            fragmentCode = fShaderStream.str();
        }
        catch (std::ifstream::failure& e)
        {
            std::cout << "ERROR::SHADER::FILE_NOT_SUCCESFULLY_READ" << std::endl;
        }
        const char* vShaderCode = vertexCode.c_str();
        const char * fShaderCode = fragmentCode.c_str();
        // 2. compile shaders
        unsigned int vertex, fragment;
        // vertex shader
        vertex = glCreateShader(GL_VERTEX_SHADER);
        glShaderSource(vertex, 1, &vShaderCode, NULL);
        glCompileShader(vertex);
        checkCompileErrors(vertex, "VERTEX");
        // fragment Shader
        fragment = glCreateShader(GL_FRAGMENT_SHADER);
        glShaderSource(fragment, 1, &fShaderCode, NULL);
        glCompileShader(fragment);
        checkCompileErrors(fragment, "FRAGMENT");
        // shader Program
        ID = glCreateProgram();
        glAttachShader(ID, vertex);
        glAttachShader(ID, fragment);
        glLinkProgram(ID);
        checkCompileErrors(ID, "PROGRAM");
        // delete the shaders as they're linked into our program now and no longer necessary
        glDeleteShader(vertex);
        glDeleteShader(fragment);
    }
    // activate the shader
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void use()
    {
        glUseProgram(ID);
    }
    // utility uniform functions
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setBool(const std::string &name, bool value) const
    {
        glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), (int)value);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setInt(const std::string &name, int value) const
    {
        glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), value);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setFloat(const std::string &name, float value) const
    {
        glUniform1f(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), value);
    }
    
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setVec2(const std::string &name, const glm::vec2 &value) const
    {
        glUniform2fv(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), 1, &value[0]);
    }
    void setVec2(const std::string &name, float x, float y) const
    {
        glUniform2f(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), x, y);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setVec3(const std::string &name, const glm::vec3 &value) const
    {
        glUniform3fv(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), 1, &value[0]);
    }
    void setVec3(const std::string &name, float x, float y, float z) const
    {
        glUniform3f(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), x, y, z);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setVec4(const std::string &name, const glm::vec4 &value) const
    {
        glUniform4fv(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), 1, &value[0]);
    }
    void setVec4(const std::string &name, float x, float y, float z, float w)
    {
        glUniform4f(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), x, y, z, w);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setMat2(const std::string &name, const glm::mat2 &mat) const
    {
        glUniformMatrix2fv(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), 1, GL_FALSE, &mat[0][0]);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setMat3(const std::string &name, const glm::mat3 &mat) const
    {
        glUniformMatrix3fv(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), 1, GL_FALSE, &mat[0][0]);
    }
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void setMat4(const std::string &name, const glm::mat4 &mat) const
    {
        glUniformMatrix4fv(glGetUniformLocation(ID, name.c_str()), 1, GL_FALSE, &mat[0][0]);
    }


private:
    // utility function for checking shader compilation/linking errors.
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    void checkCompileErrors(unsigned int shader, std::string type)
    {
        int success;
        char infoLog[1024];
        if (type != "PROGRAM")
        {
            glGetShaderiv(shader, GL_COMPILE_STATUS, &success);
            if (!success)
            {
                glGetShaderInfoLog(shader, 1024, NULL, infoLog);
                std::cout << "ERROR::SHADER_COMPILATION_ERROR of type: " << type << "\n" << infoLog << "\n -- --------------------------------------------------- -- " << std::endl;
            }
        }
        else
        {
            glGetProgramiv(shader, GL_LINK_STATUS, &success);
            if (!success)
            {
                glGetProgramInfoLog(shader, 1024, NULL, infoLog);
                std::cout << "ERROR::PROGRAM_LINKING_ERROR of type: " << type << "\n" << infoLog << "\n -- --------------------------------------------------- -- " << std::endl;
            }
        }
    }
};

#endif

着色器代码,最重要的变化是坐标的计算有变化,增加了3个矩阵的变换

// texture.vs
#version 330 core
layout (location = 0) in vec3 aPos;
layout (location = 1) in vec2 aTexCoord;

out vec2 TexCoord;

uniform mat4 model;
uniform mat4 view;
uniform mat4 projection;

void main()
{
    gl_Position = projection * view * model * vec4(aPos, 1.0);
    TexCoord = vec2(aTexCoord.x, aTexCoord.y);
}

// texture.fs
#version 330 core
out vec4 FragColor;

in vec2 TexCoord;

// texture sampler
uniform sampler2D texture1;
uniform sampler2D texture2;


void main()
{
//    FragColor = texture(texture1, TexCoord);
//    FragColor = texture(texture1, TexCoord) * vec4(ourColor, 1.0);
    
    FragColor = mix(texture(texture1, TexCoord), texture(texture2, TexCoord), 0.2);
}

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