浅谈机器人控制与仿真设计----RDS和ROS

机器人控制、仿真或实验,主要由三个部分组成,机器人环境算法

当然各部分又包含很多子部分和功能,这里主要以仿真为主,为了使得仿真结果能够直接应用到实际机器人上,这里分别以RDSROS对比介绍。http://download.csdn.net/detail/zhangrelay/9629847

1 机器人

机器人的控制算法主要基于运动学或动力学设计,使机器人在环境中以期望速度或轨迹运动,当然要避障,这与环境相关,放在第二部分。机器人装备传感器感知环境,由算法做出决策,发送到运动执行机构,在加入学习能力之后,可以依据环境做出有利于自身的动态调整,以便于更好的适应环境和完成任务。

RDS:

以P3DX为例:

配置代码如下:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<Manifest xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/manifest.html">
  <CreateServiceList>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Contract>http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html</Contract>
          <Service>P3DX.xml</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name>StateService</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2006/05/simulateddifferentialdrive.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Service>http://localhost/P3DXMotorBase</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name xmlns:q1="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">q1:Entity</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2006/05/simulatedlrf.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Service>http://localhost/P3DXLaserRangeFinder</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name xmlns:q2="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">q2:Entity</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2006/05/simulatedbumper.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Service>http://localhost/P3DXBumpers</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name xmlns:q3="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">q3:Entity</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/2006/09/simulatedwebcam.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Service>http://localhost/robocam</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name xmlns:q4="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">q4:Entity</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2011/01/simulateddepthcam.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Service>http://localhost/KinectCamera</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name xmlns:q5="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">q5:Entity</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
    <ServiceRecordType>
      <Contract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2011/01/simulatedwebcamsensor.html</Contract>
      <PartnerList xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html">
        <Partner>
          <Service>http://localhost/SimulatedWebcam</Service>
          <PartnerList />
          <Name xmlns:q6="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">q6:Entity</Name>
        </Partner>
      </PartnerList>
    </ServiceRecordType>
  </CreateServiceList>
</Manifest>

分别配置了差动底盘、激光传感器、碰撞传感器和深度视觉摄像头等。 完整版本配置如下:

    <Pioneer3DX xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
      <sim:State>
        <sim:Name>P3DXMotorBase</sim:Name>
        <sim:Assets>
          <sim:Mesh>Pioneer3dx.bos</sim:Mesh>
          <sim:Effect>default</sim:Effect>
        </sim:Assets>
        <sim:Pose>
          <physm:Position>
            <physm:X>2</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0.077099</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>2</physm:Z>
          </physm:Position>
          <physm:Orientation>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>2.0103019E-07</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>-7.260728E-10</physm:Z>
            <physm:W>1</physm:W>
          </physm:Orientation>
        </sim:Pose>
        <sim:Velocity>
          <physm:X>-3.3154862E-07</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>1.32271339E-07</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>-3.06670131E-07</physm:Z>
        </sim:Velocity>
        <sim:AngularVelocity>
          <physm:X>-4.037088E-06</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>-5.273405E-06</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>9.124161E-06</physm:Z>
        </sim:AngularVelocity>
        <sim:MassDensity>
          <phys:Mass>11</phys:Mass>
          <phys:InertiaTensor>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </phys:InertiaTensor>
          <phys:CenterOfMass>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>0</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:CenterOfMass>
          <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
          <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
          <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
          <phys:MassLocalPose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:MassLocalPose>
        </sim:MassDensity>
        <sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
      </sim:State>
      <Flags>None</Flags>
      <ChildCount>4</ChildCount>
      <ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
      <ServiceContract>http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2006/05/simulateddifferentialdrive.html</ServiceContract>
      <EmbeddedResourceAssemblies />
      <MeshScale>
        <physm:X>1</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
      </MeshScale>
      <MeshRotation>
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshRotation>
      <MeshTranslation>
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshTranslation>
      <IsEnabled>true</IsEnabled>
      <MotorTorqueScaling>20</MotorTorqueScaling>
      <RightWheel>
        <sim:State>
          <sim:Name>P3DXMotorBase:Right wheel</sim:Name>
          <sim:Assets>
            <sim:Mesh>PioneerWheel.bos</sim:Mesh>
          </sim:Assets>
          <sim:Pose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>2</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0.077099</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>2</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>2.0103019E-07</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>-7.260728E-10</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </sim:Pose>
          <sim:Velocity>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </sim:Velocity>
          <sim:AngularVelocity>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </sim:AngularVelocity>
          <sim:MassDensity>
            <phys:Mass>0</phys:Mass>
            <phys:InertiaTensor>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </phys:InertiaTensor>
            <phys:CenterOfMass>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:CenterOfMass>
            <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
            <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
            <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
            <phys:MassLocalPose>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:MassLocalPose>
          </sim:MassDensity>
          <sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
        </sim:State>
        <Flags>None</Flags>
        <ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
        <ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
        <EmbeddedResourceAssemblies />
        <MeshScale>
          <physm:X>1</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
        </MeshScale>
        <MeshRotation>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>180</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </MeshRotation>
        <MeshTranslation>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </MeshTranslation>
        <WheelShape>
          <phys:WheelState>
            <phys:Name>P3DXMotorBase/front right wheel</phys:Name>
            <phys:ShapeId>Wheel</phys:ShapeId>
            <phys:Dimensions>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </phys:Dimensions>
            <phys:Radius>0.08</phys:Radius>
            <phys:Material>
              <phys:Name>default wheel material</phys:Name>
              <phys:Restitution>0</phys:Restitution>
              <phys:DynamicFriction>0</phys:DynamicFriction>
              <phys:StaticFriction>0</phys:StaticFriction>
              <phys:MaterialIndex>497</phys:MaterialIndex>
            </phys:Material>
            <phys:MassDensity>
              <phys:Mass>0.1</phys:Mass>
              <phys:InertiaTensor>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </phys:InertiaTensor>
              <phys:CenterOfMass>
                <physm:Position>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                </physm:Position>
                <physm:Orientation>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                  <physm:W>0</physm:W>
                </physm:Orientation>
              </phys:CenterOfMass>
              <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
              <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
              <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
              <phys:MassLocalPose>
                <physm:Position>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                </physm:Position>
                <physm:Orientation>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                  <physm:W>0</physm:W>
                </physm:Orientation>
              </phys:MassLocalPose>
            </phys:MassDensity>
            <phys:LocalPose>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0.1565</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0.08</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>-0.05</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0.842458248</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0.5387616</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:LocalPose>
            <phys:TextureFileName />
            <phys:DiffuseColor>
              <physm:X>0.5</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0.5</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0.5</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </phys:DiffuseColor>
            <phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
            <phys:InnerRadius>0.055999998</phys:InnerRadius>
            <phys:SuspensionTravel>0</phys:SuspensionTravel>
            <phys:Flags>OverrideAxleSpeed</phys:Flags>
            <phys:AxleSpeed>0</phys:AxleSpeed>
            <phys:BrakeTorque>0</phys:BrakeTorque>
          </phys:WheelState>
        </WheelShape>
        <Rotations>-8.31889248</Rotations>
      </RightWheel>
      <LeftWheel>
        <sim:State>
          <sim:Name>P3DXMotorBase:Left wheel</sim:Name>
          <sim:Assets>
            <sim:Mesh>PioneerWheel.bos</sim:Mesh>
          </sim:Assets>
          <sim:Pose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>2</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0.077099</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>2</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>2.0103019E-07</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>-7.260728E-10</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </sim:Pose>
          <sim:Velocity>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </sim:Velocity>
          <sim:AngularVelocity>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </sim:AngularVelocity>
          <sim:MassDensity>
            <phys:Mass>0</phys:Mass>
            <phys:InertiaTensor>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </phys:InertiaTensor>
            <phys:CenterOfMass>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:CenterOfMass>
            <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
            <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
            <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
            <phys:MassLocalPose>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:MassLocalPose>
          </sim:MassDensity>
          <sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
        </sim:State>
        <Flags>None</Flags>
        <ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
        <ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
        <EmbeddedResourceAssemblies />
        <MeshScale>
          <physm:X>1</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
        </MeshScale>
        <MeshRotation>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </MeshRotation>
        <MeshTranslation>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </MeshTranslation>
        <WheelShape>
          <phys:WheelState>
            <phys:Name>P3DXMotorBase/front left wheel</phys:Name>
            <phys:ShapeId>Wheel</phys:ShapeId>
            <phys:Dimensions>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </phys:Dimensions>
            <phys:Radius>0.08</phys:Radius>
            <phys:Material>
              <phys:Name>default wheel material</phys:Name>
              <phys:Restitution>0</phys:Restitution>
              <phys:DynamicFriction>0</phys:DynamicFriction>
              <phys:StaticFriction>0</phys:StaticFriction>
              <phys:MaterialIndex>496</phys:MaterialIndex>
            </phys:Material>
            <phys:MassDensity>
              <phys:Mass>0.1</phys:Mass>
              <phys:InertiaTensor>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </phys:InertiaTensor>
              <phys:CenterOfMass>
                <physm:Position>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                </physm:Position>
                <physm:Orientation>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                  <physm:W>0</physm:W>
                </physm:Orientation>
              </phys:CenterOfMass>
              <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
              <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
              <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
              <phys:MassLocalPose>
                <physm:Position>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                </physm:Position>
                <physm:Orientation>
                  <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                  <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                  <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                  <physm:W>0</physm:W>
                </physm:Orientation>
              </phys:MassLocalPose>
            </phys:MassDensity>
            <phys:LocalPose>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>-0.1565</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0.08</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>-0.05</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0.999986649</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0.00517276628</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:LocalPose>
            <phys:TextureFileName />
            <phys:DiffuseColor>
              <physm:X>0.5</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0.5</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0.5</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </phys:DiffuseColor>
            <phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
            <phys:InnerRadius>0.055999998</phys:InnerRadius>
            <phys:SuspensionTravel>0</phys:SuspensionTravel>
            <phys:Flags>OverrideAxleSpeed</phys:Flags>
            <phys:AxleSpeed>0</phys:AxleSpeed>
            <phys:BrakeTorque>0</phys:BrakeTorque>
          </phys:WheelState>
        </WheelShape>
        <Rotations>7.50164652</Rotations>
      </LeftWheel>
      <ChassisShape>
        <phys:BoxState>
          <phys:Name>P3DXMotorBase/Chassis</phys:Name>
          <phys:ShapeId>Box</phys:ShapeId>
          <phys:Dimensions>
            <physm:X>0.393</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0.18</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0.4</physm:Z>
          </phys:Dimensions>
          <phys:Radius>0</phys:Radius>
          <phys:Material>
            <phys:Name>high friction</phys:Name>
            <phys:Restitution>0</phys:Restitution>
            <phys:DynamicFriction>1</phys:DynamicFriction>
            <phys:StaticFriction>20</phys:StaticFriction>
            <phys:MaterialIndex>495</phys:MaterialIndex>
          </phys:Material>
          <phys:MassDensity>
            <phys:Mass>9</phys:Mass>
            <phys:InertiaTensor>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
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          <phys:Name>P3DXMotorBase/Caster wheel</phys:Name>
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            <phys:Name>_default</phys:Name>
            <phys:Restitution>0.2</phys:Restitution>
            <phys:DynamicFriction>0.5</phys:DynamicFriction>
            <phys:StaticFriction>0.5</phys:StaticFriction>
            <phys:MaterialIndex>501</phys:MaterialIndex>
          </phys:Material>
          <phys:MassDensity>
            <phys:Mass>0.01</phys:Mass>
            <phys:InertiaTensor>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </phys:InertiaTensor>
            <phys:CenterOfMass>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>0</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:CenterOfMass>
            <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
            <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
            <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
            <phys:MassLocalPose>
              <physm:Position>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              </physm:Position>
              <physm:Orientation>
                <physm:X>0</physm:X>
                <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
                <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
                <physm:W>1</physm:W>
              </physm:Orientation>
            </phys:MassLocalPose>
          </phys:MassDensity>
          <phys:LocalPose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:LocalPose>
          <phys:TextureFileName />
          <phys:DiffuseColor>
            <physm:X>0.5</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0.5</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0.5</physm:Z>
            <physm:W>1</physm:W>
          </phys:DiffuseColor>
          <phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
        </phys:BoxState>
      </BoxShape>
    </KinectEntity>
    <DepthCameraEntity xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2011/01/simulateddepthcam.html">
      <sim:State>
        <sim:Name>KinectCamera</sim:Name>
        <sim:Assets />
        <sim:Pose>
          <physm:Position>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>-0.029</physm:Z>
          </physm:Position>
          <physm:Orientation>
            <physm:X>8.72664643E-08</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>8.72664643E-08</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>8.726645E-08</physm:Z>
            <physm:W>1</physm:W>
          </physm:Orientation>
        </sim:Pose>
        <sim:Velocity>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </sim:Velocity>
        <sim:AngularVelocity>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </sim:AngularVelocity>
        <sim:MassDensity>
          <phys:Mass>1</phys:Mass>
          <phys:InertiaTensor>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </phys:InertiaTensor>
          <phys:CenterOfMass>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>0</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:CenterOfMass>
          <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
          <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
          <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
          <phys:MassLocalPose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:MassLocalPose>
        </sim:MassDensity>
        <sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
      </sim:State>
      <Flags xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">None</Flags>
      <ChildCount xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">0</ChildCount>
      <ReferenceFrame xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">Local</ReferenceFrame>
      <ServiceContract xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2011/01/simulateddepthcam.html</ServiceContract>
      <EmbeddedResourceAssemblies xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html" />
      <MeshScale xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <physm:X>1</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
      </MeshScale>
      <MeshRotation xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshRotation>
      <MeshTranslation xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshTranslation>
      <IsRealTimeCamera xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">true</IsRealTimeCamera>
      <UpdateInterval xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">67</UpdateInterval>
      <ShadowDisplay xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">ShowShadows</ShadowDisplay>
      <CameraModel xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">FirstPerson</CameraModel>
      <Near xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">5E-05</Near>
      <Far xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">12</Far>
      <ViewSizeX xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">640</ViewSizeX>
      <ViewSizeY xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">480</ViewSizeY>
      <ViewAngle xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">0.780699968</ViewAngle>
      <IsPhysicsVisible xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">false</IsPhysicsVisible>
      <LookAt xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <X>2</X>
        <Y>0.53</Y>
        <Z>0.71</Z>
      </LookAt>
      <Location xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <X>2</X>
        <Y>0.53</Y>
        <Z>1.71</Z>
      </Location>
      <DepthRange>4</DepthRange>
    </DepthCameraEntity>
    <CameraEntity xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
      <sim:State>
        <sim:Name>SimulatedWebcam</sim:Name>
        <sim:Assets />
        <sim:Pose>
          <physm:Position>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>-0.029</physm:Z>
          </physm:Position>
          <physm:Orientation>
            <physm:X>8.72664643E-08</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>8.72664643E-08</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>8.726645E-08</physm:Z>
            <physm:W>1</physm:W>
          </physm:Orientation>
        </sim:Pose>
        <sim:Velocity>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </sim:Velocity>
        <sim:AngularVelocity>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </sim:AngularVelocity>
        <sim:MassDensity>
          <phys:Mass>1</phys:Mass>
          <phys:InertiaTensor>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </phys:InertiaTensor>
          <phys:CenterOfMass>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>0</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:CenterOfMass>
          <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
          <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
          <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
          <phys:MassLocalPose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:MassLocalPose>
        </sim:MassDensity>
        <sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
      </sim:State>
      <Flags>None</Flags>
      <ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
      <ReferenceFrame>Local</ReferenceFrame>
      <ServiceContract>http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2011/01/simulatedwebcamsensor.html</ServiceContract>
      <EmbeddedResourceAssemblies />
      <MeshScale>
        <physm:X>1</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
      </MeshScale>
      <MeshRotation>
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshRotation>
      <MeshTranslation>
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshTranslation>
      <IsRealTimeCamera>true</IsRealTimeCamera>
      <UpdateInterval>67</UpdateInterval>
      <ShadowDisplay>ShowShadows</ShadowDisplay>
      <CameraModel>FirstPerson</CameraModel>
      <Near>0.001</Near>
      <Far>50</Far>
      <ViewSizeX>640</ViewSizeX>
      <ViewSizeY>480</ViewSizeY>
      <ViewAngle>0.780699968</ViewAngle>
      <IsPhysicsVisible>false</IsPhysicsVisible>
      <LookAt>
        <X>2</X>
        <Y>0.53</Y>
        <Z>0.97</Z>
      </LookAt>
      <Location>
        <X>2</X>
        <Y>0.53</Y>
        <Z>1.97</Z>
      </Location>
    </CameraEntity>
    <PursuitCameraEntity xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/entity/2008/04/pursuitcamera.html">
      <sim:State>
        <sim:Name>PursuitCamera</sim:Name>
        <sim:Assets />
        <sim:Pose>
          <physm:Position>
            <physm:X>3.34445143</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>2.002601</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>9.239522</physm:Z>
          </physm:Position>
          <physm:Orientation>
            <physm:X>-0.00700437</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0.9677629</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0.2503048</physm:Z>
            <physm:W>0.02708126</physm:W>
          </physm:Orientation>
        </sim:Pose>
        <sim:Velocity>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </sim:Velocity>
        <sim:AngularVelocity>
          <physm:X>0</physm:X>
          <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
          <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
        </sim:AngularVelocity>
        <sim:MassDensity>
          <phys:Mass>1</phys:Mass>
          <phys:InertiaTensor>
            <physm:X>0</physm:X>
            <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
            <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
          </phys:InertiaTensor>
          <phys:CenterOfMass>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>0</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:CenterOfMass>
          <phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
          <phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
          <phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
          <phys:MassLocalPose>
            <physm:Position>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
            </physm:Position>
            <physm:Orientation>
              <physm:X>0</physm:X>
              <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
              <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
              <physm:W>1</physm:W>
            </physm:Orientation>
          </phys:MassLocalPose>
        </sim:MassDensity>
        <sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
      </sim:State>
      <Flags xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">None</Flags>
      <ChildCount xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">0</ChildCount>
      <ReferenceFrame xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">Global</ReferenceFrame>
      <MeshScale xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <physm:X>1</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
      </MeshScale>
      <MeshRotation xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshRotation>
      <MeshTranslation xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <physm:X>0</physm:X>
        <physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
        <physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
      </MeshTranslation>
      <IsRealTimeCamera xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">false</IsRealTimeCamera>
      <UpdateInterval xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">67</UpdateInterval>
      <ShadowDisplay xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">ShowShadows</ShadowDisplay>
      <CameraModel xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">FirstPerson</CameraModel>
      <Near xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">0.1</Near>
      <Far xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">5000</Far>
      <ViewSizeX xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">800</ViewSizeX>
      <ViewSizeY xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">600</ViewSizeY>
      <ViewAngle xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">0.7853982</ViewAngle>
      <IsPhysicsVisible xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">false</IsPhysicsVisible>
      <LookAt xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <X>3.14</X>
        <Y>0</Y>
        <Z>12.84</Z>
      </LookAt>
      <Location xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
        <X>3.34</X>
        <Y>2</Y>
        <Z>9.24</Z>
      </Location>
      <TargetName>P3DXMotorBase</TargetName>
      <MinDistance>4</MinDistance>
      <MaxDistance>6</MaxDistance>
      <Altitude>2</Altitude>
      <PreventOcclusion>true</PreventOcclusion>
      <OcclusionThreshold>0.5</OcclusionThreshold>
    </PursuitCameraEntity>

包含各模型,非常详细和具体的配置。

ROS:

如果用Gazebo进行机器人三维仿真,可以参考:

机器人模型:http://blog.csdn.net/zhangrelay/article/details/52839752

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

两者其实没有本质区别,逼真的机器人模型可以用blender等三维软件设计然后导入到环境中,这些文件主要用来配置机器人属性,包括位姿等,以及传感器、电机的具体位姿和其他参数等。

2 环境

机器人运动空间中其他对象共同组成的场景,就是机器人的环境。下面以一个简单环境为例:

环境中有天空、光源、大地和障碍物等,也包括重力、摩擦力的配置,当然也可以设计更为逼真的起伏地形环境。

具体配置文件如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<SimulationState xmlns:s="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope" xmlns:wsa="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/ws/2004/08/addressing" xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/xw/2004/10/dssp.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html">
	<Gravity>
		<X xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">0</X>
		<Y xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">-9.81</Y>
		<Z xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">0</Z>
	</Gravity>
	<RenderMode>Full</RenderMode>
	<FramesPerSecond>62.8144646</FramesPerSecond>
	<Pause>false</Pause>
	<CameraPosition>
		<X xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">1.66</X>
		<Y xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">2.22</Y>
		<Z xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">3.6</Z>
	</CameraPosition>
	<CameraLookAt>
		<X xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">1.2</X>
		<Y xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">1.96</Y>
		<Z xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html">2.75</Z>
	</CameraLookAt>
	<CameraFieldOfView>0.781</CameraFieldOfView>
	<CameraNearPlane>0.1</CameraNearPlane>
	<CameraFarPlane>5000</CameraFarPlane>
	<Lights />
	<SerializedEntities>
		<LightSourceEntity xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
			<sim:State>
				<sim:Name>Sun</sim:Name>
				<sim:Assets />
				<sim:Pose>
					<physm:Position>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</physm:Position>
					<physm:Orientation>
						<physm:X>-0.04912025</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.491202474</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>0.8696593</physm:W>
					</physm:Orientation>
				</sim:Pose>
				<sim:Velocity>
					<physm:X>0</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
				</sim:Velocity>
				<sim:AngularVelocity>
					<physm:X>0</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
				</sim:AngularVelocity>
				<sim:MassDensity>
					<phys:Mass>0</phys:Mass>
					<phys:InertiaTensor>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</phys:InertiaTensor>
					<phys:CenterOfMass>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>0</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:CenterOfMass>
					<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
					<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
					<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
				</sim:MassDensity>
				<sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
			</sim:State>
			<Flags>DisableRendering</Flags>
			<ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
			<ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
			<MeshScale>
				<physm:X>1</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
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						<physm:Z>0.25</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</phys:DiffuseColor>
					<phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
				</phys:BoxState>
			</ChassisShape>
			<CasterWheelShape>
				<phys:SphereState>
					<phys:Name>P3DXMotorBase/Caster wheel</phys:Name>
					<phys:ShapeId>Sphere</phys:ShapeId>
					<phys:Dimensions>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</phys:Dimensions>
					<phys:Radius>0.025</phys:Radius>
					<phys:Material>
						<phys:Name>small friction with anisotropy</phys:Name>
						<phys:Restitution>0.5</phys:Restitution>
						<phys:DynamicFriction>0.5</phys:DynamicFriction>
						<phys:StaticFriction>1</phys:StaticFriction>
						<phys:MaterialIndex>2</phys:MaterialIndex>
						<phys:Advanced>
							<phys:AnisotropicStaticFriction>0.4</phys:AnisotropicStaticFriction>
							<phys:AnisotropicDynamicFriction>0.3</phys:AnisotropicDynamicFriction>
							<phys:AnisotropyDirection>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
							</phys:AnisotropyDirection>
							<phys:RestitutionCombineMode>Unspecified</phys:RestitutionCombineMode>
							<phys:FrictionCombineMode>Unspecified</phys:FrictionCombineMode>
							<phys:Optical />
						</phys:Advanced>
					</phys:Material>
					<phys:MassDensity>
						<phys:Mass>0.001</phys:Mass>
						<phys:InertiaTensor>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</phys:InertiaTensor>
						<phys:CenterOfMass>
							<physm:Position>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:Position>
							<physm:Orientation>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								<physm:W>0</physm:W>
							</physm:Orientation>
						</phys:CenterOfMass>
						<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
						<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
						<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
					</phys:MassDensity>
					<phys:LocalPose>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0.025</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0.175</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>-1</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:LocalPose>
					<phys:TextureFileName />
					<phys:DiffuseColor>
						<physm:X>0.5</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0.5</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.5</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</phys:DiffuseColor>
					<phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
				</phys:SphereState>
			</CasterWheelShape>
			<RotateDegreesAngleThreshold>0</RotateDegreesAngleThreshold>
			<TimeoutSeconds>0</TimeoutSeconds>
		</Pioneer3DX>
		<LaserRangeFinderEntity xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
			<sim:State>
				<sim:Name>P3DXLaserRangeFinder</sim:Name>
				<sim:Assets>
					<sim:Effect>LaserRangeFinder.fx</sim:Effect>
				</sim:Assets>
				<sim:Pose>
					<physm:Position>
						<physm:X>1.000001</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>-0.0009999871</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.000236215943</physm:Z>
					</physm:Position>
					<physm:Orientation>
						<physm:X>-3.43086185E-07</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>-2.39392671E-06</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>-6.05226269E-09</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</physm:Orientation>
				</sim:Pose>
				<sim:Velocity>
					<physm:X>-5.849387E-09</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>2.36588562E-08</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>-4.401973E-08</physm:Z>
				</sim:Velocity>
				<sim:AngularVelocity>
					<physm:X>-2.53042344E-07</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>2.95466918E-09</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>3.21068647E-08</physm:Z>
				</sim:AngularVelocity>
				<sim:MassDensity>
					<phys:Mass>0.5</phys:Mass>
					<phys:InertiaTensor>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</phys:InertiaTensor>
					<phys:CenterOfMass>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>0</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:CenterOfMass>
					<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
					<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
					<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
				</sim:MassDensity>
				<sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
			</sim:State>
			<Flags>UsesAlphaBlending DisableViewFrustumCulling</Flags>
			<ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
			<ParentJoint>
				<physm:State>
					<physm:Name>P3DXLaserRangeFinder's parent joint</physm:Name>
					<physm:Connectors>
						<physm:EntityJointConnector>
							<physm:JointNormal>
								<physm:X>1.96775329E-09</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>1.40716976E-08</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointNormal>
							<physm:JointAxis>
								<physm:X>1</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>-1.96768624E-09</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>-4.76237028E-06</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointAxis>
							<physm:JointConnectPoint>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointConnectPoint>
						</physm:EntityJointConnector>
						<physm:EntityJointConnector>
							<physm:JointNormal>
								<physm:X>-1.07012754E-08</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>1.02300222E-08</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointNormal>
							<physm:JointAxis>
								<physm:X>1</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>1.07013234E-08</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>-4.762509E-06</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointAxis>
							<physm:JointConnectPoint>
								<physm:X>-7.048179E-14</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>1.51396393E-16</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>-1.47992978E-08</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointConnectPoint>
						</physm:EntityJointConnector>
					</physm:Connectors>
					<physm:MaximumForce>0</physm:MaximumForce>
					<physm:MaximumTorque>0</physm:MaximumTorque>
					<physm:EnableCollisions>false</physm:EnableCollisions>
					<physm:Projection>
						<physm:ProjectionMode>LinearMinimumDistance</physm:ProjectionMode>
						<physm:ProjectionDistanceThreshold>1.401298E-45</physm:ProjectionDistanceThreshold>
						<physm:ProjectionAngleThreshold>1.401298E-45</physm:ProjectionAngleThreshold>
					</physm:Projection>
				</physm:State>
			</ParentJoint>
			<ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
			<ServiceContract>http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2006/05/simulatedlrf.user.html</ServiceContract>
			<MeshScale>
				<physm:X>1</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
			</MeshScale>
			<MeshRotation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshRotation>
			<MeshTranslation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshTranslation>
			<LaserBox>
				<phys:BoxState>
					<phys:Name>P3DXLaserRangeFinder/SickLRF</phys:Name>
					<phys:ShapeId>Box</phys:ShapeId>
					<phys:Dimensions>
						<physm:X>0.15</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0.2</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.18</physm:Z>
					</phys:Dimensions>
					<phys:Radius>0</phys:Radius>
					<phys:MassDensity>
						<phys:Mass>0.5</phys:Mass>
						<phys:InertiaTensor>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</phys:InertiaTensor>
						<phys:CenterOfMass>
							<physm:Position>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:Position>
							<physm:Orientation>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								<physm:W>0</physm:W>
							</physm:Orientation>
						</phys:CenterOfMass>
						<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
						<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
						<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
					</phys:MassDensity>
					<phys:LocalPose>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0.3</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>1</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:LocalPose>
					<phys:TextureFileName />
					<phys:DiffuseColor>
						<physm:X>0.25</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0.25</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.8</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</phys:DiffuseColor>
					<phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
				</phys:BoxState>
			</LaserBox>
			<ImpactPointEffect>LaserRangeFinder.fx</ImpactPointEffect>
		</LaserRangeFinderEntity>
		<BumperArrayEntity xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
			<sim:State>
				<sim:Name>P3DXBumpers</sim:Name>
				<sim:Assets>
					<sim:Effect>default</sim:Effect>
				</sim:Assets>
				<sim:Pose>
					<physm:Position>
						<physm:X>1.000001</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>-0.0009999983</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.000236034088</physm:Z>
					</physm:Position>
					<physm:Orientation>
						<physm:X>-3.45008232E-07</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>-2.39381848E-06</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>2.8847108E-10</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</physm:Orientation>
				</sim:Pose>
				<sim:Velocity>
					<physm:X>1.37185452E-09</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>2.0209038E-08</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>1.55766546E-08</physm:Z>
				</sim:Velocity>
				<sim:AngularVelocity>
					<physm:X>-2.57251E-07</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>2.983444E-09</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>3.27052057E-08</physm:Z>
				</sim:AngularVelocity>
				<sim:MassDensity>
					<phys:Mass>0.002</phys:Mass>
					<phys:InertiaTensor>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</phys:InertiaTensor>
					<phys:CenterOfMass>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>0</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:CenterOfMass>
					<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
					<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
					<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
				</sim:MassDensity>
				<sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
			</sim:State>
			<Flags>DisableRendering</Flags>
			<ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
			<ParentJoint>
				<physm:State>
					<physm:Name>P3DXBumpers's parent joint</physm:Name>
					<physm:Connectors>
						<physm:EntityJointConnector>
							<physm:JointNormal>
								<physm:X>1.96775329E-09</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>1.40716976E-08</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointNormal>
							<physm:JointAxis>
								<physm:X>1</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>-1.96768624E-09</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>-4.76237028E-06</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointAxis>
							<physm:JointConnectPoint>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointConnectPoint>
						</physm:EntityJointConnector>
						<physm:EntityJointConnector>
							<physm:JointNormal>
								<physm:X>1.96775329E-09</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>1.40716976E-08</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointNormal>
							<physm:JointAxis>
								<physm:X>1</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>-1.96768624E-09</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>-4.76237028E-06</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointAxis>
							<physm:JointConnectPoint>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:JointConnectPoint>
						</physm:EntityJointConnector>
					</physm:Connectors>
					<physm:MaximumForce>0</physm:MaximumForce>
					<physm:MaximumTorque>0</physm:MaximumTorque>
					<physm:EnableCollisions>false</physm:EnableCollisions>
					<physm:Projection>
						<physm:ProjectionMode>LinearMinimumDistance</physm:ProjectionMode>
						<physm:ProjectionDistanceThreshold>1.401298E-45</physm:ProjectionDistanceThreshold>
						<physm:ProjectionAngleThreshold>1.401298E-45</physm:ProjectionAngleThreshold>
					</physm:Projection>
				</physm:State>
			</ParentJoint>
			<ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
			<ServiceContract>http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/simulation/services/2006/05/simulatedbumper.user.html</ServiceContract>
			<MeshScale>
				<physm:X>1</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
			</MeshScale>
			<MeshRotation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshRotation>
			<MeshTranslation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshTranslation>
			<Shapes>
				<BoxShape>
					<phys:BoxState>
						<phys:Name>/P3DXBumpers/front</phys:Name>
						<phys:ShapeId>Box</phys:ShapeId>
						<phys:Dimensions>
							<physm:X>0.4</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0.03</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0.03</physm:Z>
						</phys:Dimensions>
						<phys:Radius>0</phys:Radius>
						<phys:MassDensity>
							<phys:Mass>0.001</phys:Mass>
							<phys:InertiaTensor>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</phys:InertiaTensor>
							<phys:CenterOfMass>
								<physm:Position>
									<physm:X>0</physm:X>
									<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
									<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								</physm:Position>
								<physm:Orientation>
									<physm:X>0</physm:X>
									<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
									<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
									<physm:W>0</physm:W>
								</physm:Orientation>
							</phys:CenterOfMass>
							<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
							<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
							<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
						</phys:MassDensity>
						<phys:LocalPose>
							<physm:Position>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0.05</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>-0.25</physm:Z>
							</physm:Position>
							<physm:Orientation>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								<physm:W>1</physm:W>
							</physm:Orientation>
						</phys:LocalPose>
						<phys:TextureFileName />
						<phys:DiffuseColor>
							<physm:X>0.1</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0.1</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0.1</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>1</physm:W>
						</phys:DiffuseColor>
						<phys:EnableContactNotifications>true</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
					</phys:BoxState>
				</BoxShape>
				<BoxShape>
					<phys:BoxState>
						<phys:Name>/P3DXBumpers/rear</phys:Name>
						<phys:ShapeId>Box</phys:ShapeId>
						<phys:Dimensions>
							<physm:X>0.4</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0.03</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0.03</physm:Z>
						</phys:Dimensions>
						<phys:Radius>0</phys:Radius>
						<phys:MassDensity>
							<phys:Mass>0.001</phys:Mass>
							<phys:InertiaTensor>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</phys:InertiaTensor>
							<phys:CenterOfMass>
								<physm:Position>
									<physm:X>0</physm:X>
									<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
									<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								</physm:Position>
								<physm:Orientation>
									<physm:X>0</physm:X>
									<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
									<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
									<physm:W>0</physm:W>
								</physm:Orientation>
							</phys:CenterOfMass>
							<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
							<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
							<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
						</phys:MassDensity>
						<phys:LocalPose>
							<physm:Position>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0.05</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0.25</physm:Z>
							</physm:Position>
							<physm:Orientation>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								<physm:W>1</physm:W>
							</physm:Orientation>
						</phys:LocalPose>
						<phys:TextureFileName />
						<phys:DiffuseColor>
							<physm:X>0.1</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0.1</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0.1</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>1</physm:W>
						</phys:DiffuseColor>
						<phys:EnableContactNotifications>true</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
					</phys:BoxState>
				</BoxShape>
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				<physm:X>1</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
			</MeshScale>
			<MeshRotation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshRotation>
			<MeshTranslation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshTranslation>
			<BoxShape>
				<phys:BoxState>
					<phys:Name>greybox</phys:Name>
					<phys:ShapeId>Box</phys:ShapeId>
					<phys:Dimensions>
						<physm:X>1</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>1.5</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.5</physm:Z>
					</phys:Dimensions>
					<phys:Radius>0</phys:Radius>
					<phys:Material>
						<phys:Name>gbox</phys:Name>
						<phys:Restitution>0.5</phys:Restitution>
						<phys:DynamicFriction>0.4</phys:DynamicFriction>
						<phys:StaticFriction>0.5</phys:StaticFriction>
						<phys:MaterialIndex>2</phys:MaterialIndex>
					</phys:Material>
					<phys:MassDensity>
						<phys:Mass>10</phys:Mass>
						<phys:InertiaTensor>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</phys:InertiaTensor>
						<phys:CenterOfMass>
							<physm:Position>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:Position>
							<physm:Orientation>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								<physm:W>0</physm:W>
							</physm:Orientation>
						</phys:CenterOfMass>
						<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
						<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
						<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
					</phys:MassDensity>
					<phys:LocalPose>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>1</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:LocalPose>
					<phys:TextureFileName />
					<phys:DiffuseColor>
						<physm:X>0.5</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0.5</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.5</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</phys:DiffuseColor>
					<phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
				</phys:BoxState>
			</BoxShape>
		</SingleShapeEntity>
		<SingleShapeEntity xmlns:sim="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation.html" xmlns:physm="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/07/physicalmodel.html" xmlns:phys="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulation/physics.html" xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/robotics/2006/04/simulationengine.html">
			<sim:State>
				<sim:Name>bluesphere</sim:Name>
				<sim:Assets>
					<sim:Effect>default</sim:Effect>
				</sim:Assets>
				<sim:Pose>
					<physm:Position>
						<physm:X>-2</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0.799</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>-3</physm:Z>
					</physm:Position>
					<physm:Orientation>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>-9.713688E-08</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</physm:Orientation>
				</sim:Pose>
				<sim:Velocity>
					<physm:X>0</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
				</sim:Velocity>
				<sim:AngularVelocity>
					<physm:X>0</physm:X>
					<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
					<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
				</sim:AngularVelocity>
				<sim:MassDensity>
					<phys:Mass>10</phys:Mass>
					<phys:InertiaTensor>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</phys:InertiaTensor>
					<phys:CenterOfMass>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>0</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:CenterOfMass>
					<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
					<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
					<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
				</sim:MassDensity>
				<sim:Flags>Dynamic</sim:Flags>
			</sim:State>
			<Flags>None</Flags>
			<ChildCount>0</ChildCount>
			<ReferenceFrame>Global</ReferenceFrame>
			<MeshScale>
				<physm:X>1</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>1</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>1</physm:Z>
			</MeshScale>
			<MeshRotation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshRotation>
			<MeshTranslation>
				<physm:X>0</physm:X>
				<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
				<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
			</MeshTranslation>
			<SphereShape>
				<phys:SphereState>
					<phys:Name>bluesphere</phys:Name>
					<phys:ShapeId>Sphere</phys:ShapeId>
					<phys:Dimensions>
						<physm:X>0</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
					</phys:Dimensions>
					<phys:Radius>0.8</phys:Radius>
					<phys:Material>
						<phys:Name>bphere</phys:Name>
						<phys:Restitution>0.5</phys:Restitution>
						<phys:DynamicFriction>0.4</phys:DynamicFriction>
						<phys:StaticFriction>0.5</phys:StaticFriction>
						<phys:MaterialIndex>3</phys:MaterialIndex>
					</phys:Material>
					<phys:MassDensity>
						<phys:Mass>10</phys:Mass>
						<phys:InertiaTensor>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</phys:InertiaTensor>
						<phys:CenterOfMass>
							<physm:Position>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							</physm:Position>
							<physm:Orientation>
								<physm:X>0</physm:X>
								<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
								<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
								<physm:W>0</physm:W>
							</physm:Orientation>
						</phys:CenterOfMass>
						<phys:Density>0</phys:Density>
						<phys:LinearDamping>0</phys:LinearDamping>
						<phys:AngularDamping>0</phys:AngularDamping>
					</phys:MassDensity>
					<phys:LocalPose>
						<physm:Position>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
						</physm:Position>
						<physm:Orientation>
							<physm:X>0</physm:X>
							<physm:Y>0</physm:Y>
							<physm:Z>0</physm:Z>
							<physm:W>1</physm:W>
						</physm:Orientation>
					</phys:LocalPose>
					<phys:TextureFileName />
					<phys:DiffuseColor>
						<physm:X>0.4</physm:X>
						<physm:Y>0.3</physm:Y>
						<physm:Z>0.7</physm:Z>
						<physm:W>1</physm:W>
					</phys:DiffuseColor>
					<phys:EnableContactNotifications>false</phys:EnableContactNotifications>
				</phys:SphereState>
			</SphereShape>
		</SingleShapeEntity>
	</SerializedEntities>
</SimulationState>

ROS:请参考:

http://blog.csdn.net/zhangrelay/article/details/52842627

http://blog.csdn.net/ZhangRelay/article/details/52842761

3 算法

算法是机器人设计的核心,由编程语言实现。不论RDS和ROS都提供了非常丰富的接口,可以使用几乎所有主流语言进行算法设计,同时,都提供了图形化编程方式,极大降低入门难度。

这里不涉及算法具体实现和说明,依据用途不同,有环境建模功能的,如SLAM等;也包括任务规划算法,还有物体分类识别,语音交互等,差别太大,依据需要自学。

RDS:

ROS:

http://blog.csdn.net/zhangrelay/article/details/53020569

依靠可视化图形编程,机器人编程能立刻普及到小学和幼儿园!

除此之外,RDS推荐C#和SPL,ROS推荐C++和Python,分别为编译型和解释型。

ROS indigo: http://blog.csdn.net/column/details/13335.html

ROS Kinetic: http://blog.csdn.net/column/details/13113.html

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