【AI+机器学习半年志】2016上半年大事记(国际篇)

【新智元导读】夏至已至,2016过了一半,人工智能领域在2016上半年发生了什么大事?还记得AlphaGo吗?科技博客网站Turing Machine从硬件、技术、应用、公司、思想、图书、人物等多个方面归纳了过去6个月出现在国外媒体上的AI大事记。从这一份总结上可以看到,科技巨头企业之间的AI竞赛在2016年真正开始白热化,AI作为一种颠覆性的技术影响力在逐渐显现。对于企业来说,谁可以真正探索出AI产品化和变现的途径,谁就会占得先机。

进入2016年以来,机器学习+人工智能进化速度飞快,让人很难跟上,这里有一份还算全面的总结。

媒体已经捕捉到了各大企业之间的人工智能竞赛,谷歌,Facebook, IBM, 苹果等巨头已在相关项目上投入了数十亿计美元。就目前的势头看,已不难确定哪些巨头将在不远的未来拥有最具划时代的机器学习+AI技术。现在,AI不仅仅存在于大学和学术界,它已被定位为硅谷的下一代颠覆性科技。

有些人可能对这还有些疑虑。对每一代人来说,都只有少数科技是颠覆性的。机器学习+ AI 看起来确实属于颠覆性科技,但与网络浏览器、互联网、电子邮件或移动电话相比,它仍处于刚刚起步的阶段。即使对那些优质的机器学习 + AI 技术,我们还尚不清楚如何将其产品化和变现。在某种意义上来说,目前谷歌是唯一一家知道如何把AI技术进行产品化和变现的企业,而它的做法完全基于几个基本概念:相关性搜索和匹配/优化,让广告买家对广告空间进行广告竞拍。在某种意义上,相关性搜索只是间接地为公司收入做出了最低限的贡献。

当我听到 IBM 将数百万美元投入 Watson 研究的消息后,我很好奇,人们在人工智能产业化的漫长隧道中是否已经找到了出口的光亮,以及,那光亮是否意味着产业化列车的到来。

在机器学习 + AI 领域中的进展如此多样,很难归类。不过那些关键的进展是在专用系统的硬件研发、自然语言处理、预测和生物学方面,例如人们预测或宣称将在药品发现方面出现的那些突破。实际上,那些药品设计研发方面的头条新闻都过于夸张,我怀疑它能否成为机器学习 + AI 在未来的杀手级应用。在药品研发领域,全球每年都投入数十亿美元。而在癌症研究领域,人们也越来越关注"定制化",看起来,这是一个很棒的、十分适合机器学习+AI 的细分市场。

已有大量的关于对这一领域的忧虑、警告和进展的报告,很难将它们一个个区分开。许多对未来的预测都担心,机器学习 + AI 将影响就业率。对这方面的影响,人们表达了严肃、严峻甚至耸人听闻的关切。

目前,有许多技术学习材料,对有思想的研究领袖的描写。也有对于如何将大脑理解的进展与机器学习 + AI 联系起来,其内在的限制以及其他一些讨论。

当微软聊天机器人 Tay 从恶意用户那里学会坏习惯时,这给微软造成了公关危机,但它也展示了这一领域已取得了巨大的进展。许多新闻头条也报道了 AlphaGo 取得的里程碑式的围棋胜利;今年 AlphaGo可能还会与另一位棋手进行另一场比赛。

这个领域曾经有几十年没有出现极其重大的进展,现在,我正在享受和体会这个领域中非同寻常的火热景象,而在这种景象中,炒作和进步并不是彼此无关的。

注:新智元提供的翻译中,主要关注技术和应用的突破,文中附上英文相关报道衔接,可复制后在浏览器中打开,进一步了解相关信息。

一、 2016上半年,AI技术在哪些领域取得了最新进展

1&2. 机器学习可修正错误代码,且能做到最好。

3. 深度学习机器可在72小时内自学下棋(国际象棋),参加国际大师级别的比赛。

4. 物理学家用人工智能进行复杂实验,人获得解放。

5. AI学会了操作诺贝尔奖级别的物理实验。

6. 快速的机器学习用于超冷原子实验。

7. 新的系统能测出其他算法中的偏见。

8. 算法价格正引发亚马逊市场大战。

9. 在Wipro,人工智能可代替3000位工程师。

10. 神经网络上色的拼图。

11. 终结者回归?俄罗斯在人工智能上获得巨大突破。俄罗斯的研究团队在用人工智能对抗艾滋海默氏症上取得成功。

12. 当数据越来越多,基于机器学习的算法可能会是一个解决办法。

13. 一种评价AI意识的方法。

14. 世界上首个无人驾驶比赛。

15. 猜测性别

16. 内存网络:我们在走向端对端的AI架构吗?

17. 美国国防部打造具有“自我意识”的杀手机器人。

18. AI 学习的演进道路

19. 作为一种服务的机器学习:数据科学如何普及

20. GNU——我们需要另一种开源DNN吗?

21. 马斯克建OpenAI,要把AI免费化。

22&23. AI革命

1. Turns out machine learning is a champ at fixing buggy code | PCWorld

2. Recognizing correct code | MIT News

3. Deep Learning Machine Teaches Itself Chess in 72 Hours, Plays at International Master Level

4. Physicists are putting themselves out of a job, using artificial intelligence to run a complex experiment

5. AI learns and recreates Nobel-winning physics experiment | TechCrunch

6. Fast machine-learning online optimization of ultra-cold-atom experiments : Scientific Reports

7. A new system can measure the hidden bias in otherwise secret algorithms | The Verge

8. Algorithmic Pricing Is Creating An Arms Race On Amazon’s Marketplace | Co.Exist | ideas + impact

9. Man Vs Machine: At Wipro, Artificial Intelligence Is About To Do The Job Of 3000 Engineers

10. A Neural Net Colorizes Photos

11. Is Terminator back? Russians make major advances in artificial intelligence | Russia Beyond the Headlines

12. When big data gets too big, this machine-learning algorithm may be the answer | Computerworld

13. A Methodology for the Assessment of AI Consciousness / Porter III

14. These are the crazy futuristic cars of Roborace, the world’s first driverless racing series | The Verge

15. Hacker Factor: Gender Guesser

16. Memory networks: Are we moving towards an end to end ai architecture? — Medium

17. The Pentagon is building a ‘self-aware’ killer robot army fueled by social media — INSURGE intelligence — Medium

18. An EvolutionaryApproach to AI Learning

19. Machine Learning as a Service: How Data Science Is Hitting the Masses

20. GNU Gneural Network – Do We Need Another Open Source DNN?

21. Inside OpenAI, Elon Musk’s Wild Plan to Set Artificial Intelligence Free | WIRED

22. Inside the Artificial Intelligence Revolution: Pt. 1 | Rolling Stone

23. Inside the Artificial Intelligence Revolution: A Special Report, Pt. 2 | Rolling Stone

二 、硬件 ,主要涉及芯片

1、 2月13日,MIT实验室推出一款专用于神经网络的芯片,比手机GPU快10倍。

2、 深度学习硬件之战

3、 用抵抗式交叉设备加速深度神经网络训练

4、 使用GPU加速推荐系统

5、 人工智能U盘

6、 英伟达为无人驾驶车提供“大脑”。

1. Energy-friendly chip can perform powerful artificial-intelligence tasks | MIT News

2. real competition in the Deep Learning hardware space – somatic blog

3. [1603.07341] Acceleration of Deep Neural Network Training with Resistive Cross-Point Devices

4. Accelerate Recommender Systems With GPUs | Parallel Forall

5. Artificial intelligence now fits inside a USB stick

6. The self-driving race cars of Roborace will have a brain from Nvidia | The Verge

三、 自然语言处理

1、 MIT实验室的“AI算法怎么学习写政治演讲稿”

2、 聊天机器人通过图灵测试

3、 用机器学习算法分析宗教文字中的暴力

4&5、AI可解谷歌经典面试题“100顶帽子”

6、通过阅读,机器人可学习人类价值观

7、“人工智能可以为律师事务所工作,进行法律研究”等。

8、AI可为电影写字幕

9、AI算法可屏蔽极端言论

10、学了30年知识的AI开始工作

11、AI在课堂上做助教多年,一直没被发现

1. How an AI Algorithm Learned to Write Political Speeches | MIT Technology Review

2. The Chatbot That’s Acing the Largest Turing test in History

3. Thou Shalt Kill: Using Machine Learning Algorithms to Measure Violence in Islamic and other Religious Scriptures | Lefteris Anastasopoulos

4. AI solves 100-hat puzzle used in Google job interviews | New Scientist

5. Can YOU solve the ‘100 hat riddle’? Google reveals its AI has cracked puzzle it and Goldman Sachs use to spot the super smart in interviews | Daily Mail Online

6. Robots could learn human values by reading stories, research suggests | Books | The Guardian

7. Artificial Intelligence Will Now Be Doing Legal Research for Law Firms | SnapMunk

8. This is what happens when an AI-written screenplay is made into a film | Technology | The Guardian

9. Suppressing Extremist Speech: There’s an Algorithm for That! | Foreign Policy

10. An AI with 30 Years’ Worth of Knowledge Finally Goes to Work

11. Professor reveals to students that his assistant was an AI all along

四、 预测

在“预测未来”上,主要包括AI在股市、犯罪、反恐、食物供应以及奥斯卡得主等方面进行预测的应用。

1. Swarm Intelligence: AI Algorithm Predicts the Future

2. Claims superwealthy are ALREADY using robo advisors to manage their stocks | Daily Mail Online

3. Minority Report-style machines are ‘solving’ crimes BEFORE they happen | Daily Mail Online

4. False Positives exhibition’s surveillance photos show crime before it happens | Daily Mail Online

5. Israeli firm ‘predicts paedophiles, geniuses and terrorists by their face’ | Daily Mail Online

6. Kentucky Derby machine uses ‘swarm intelligence’ to turn $20 bet into $11k | Daily Mail Online

7. The Future of Humanity’s Food Supply Is in the Hands of AI | WIRED

8. Machines can learn to respond to new situations like human beings would — ScienceDaily

9. AI that picked Oscar winners could predict the next President

五、 生物

主要是AI在抗击Zika病毒上的应用。

1. Machine-learning technique uncovers unknown features of multi-drug-resistant pathogen | KurzweilAI

2. Fighting the Zika virus with the power of supercomputing — ScienceDaily

3. IBM’s ‘magic bullet’ could destroy Zika, Ebola AND herpes: Firm enlists Watson supercomputer to combat killer viruses | Daily Mail Online

六 、谷歌

谷歌涉及的AI技术包括:计算机视觉、定位、深度学习平台、TensorFlow、自然语言理解、专用芯片TPU、文本处理器Syntaxnet的开源。

1. AI正在改变谷歌搜索。

2. 谷歌可用神经对几乎任何图片中的地点进行定位。

3&11. 谷歌在“云”中分享AI技术

4. 谷歌发布新的机器学习平台

5. 谷歌要充分利用Tensorflow

6. 谷歌让自家AI读大量的言情小说,让其更贴心

7. 谷歌公布用于机器学习的专用芯片TPU

8. 谷歌开源Syntaxnet

9. 谷歌用AI打造安卓的安全卫士

10. 谷歌发布语言搜索助手

12. 谷歌在欧洲建立研究中心

13&14. 谷歌大脑作画

15 . 库兹韦尔为谷歌造聊天机器人

1. AI Is Transforming Google Search. The Rest of the Web Is Next | WIRED

2. Google Unveils Neural Network with “Superhuman” Ability to Determine the Location of Almost Any Image

3. Google Is Sharing Its Powerful AI With Everyone in Its Cloud | WIRED

4. Google launches new machine learning platform | TechCrunch

5. Google Is About to Supercharge Its TensorFlow Open Source AI | WIRED

6. Google is making its AI binge-read thousands of romance novels to get a little warmer – ScienceAlert

7. Google Cloud Platform Blog: Google supercharges machine learning tasks with TPU custom chip

8. Google Has Open Sourced SyntaxNet, Its AI for Understanding Language | WIRED

9. Google’s Training Its AI to Be Android’s Security Guard | WIRED

10. Google Finally Launches a Siri Killer in Pivot Away from Conventional Search

11. Google’s Cloud Vision AI – Now We Can All Play

12. Research Blog: Announcing Google Research, Europe

13. Google’s Artificial Brain Is Pumping Out Trippy—And Pricey—Art | WIRED

14. Google’s DeepDream Computers Make Thousands as Artists – Fortune

15. Ray Kurzweil is building a chatbot for Google | The Verge

七、 Facebook

和谷歌一样,Facebook上半年在AI上也是多点开花,包括定位、自然语言处理和脸部识别等,对其文本分析工具DeepText也有涉及。

1. Facebook 的联网无人机用AI定位人

2. Facebook AI 阅读经典儿童读物

3. Facebook 聊天机器人

4. Facebook用AI来造AI

5. Facebook 的人脸识别技术不同于FBI

6. Facebook的未来是建立于人工智能之上的

7. Facebook对外公布其文本理解工具DeepText

8. Facebook 谈机器什么时候会有常识

1. AI Helps Facebook’s Internet Drones Find Where the People Are | WIRED

2. To be more like us, Facebook’s AI is reading itself classic children’s books – Quartz

3. The present and future of Facebook Messenger bots – Tech Insider

4. Building AI Is Hard—So Facebook Is Building AI That Builds AI | WIRED

5. Facebook’s Facial Recognition Software Is Different From The FBI’s. Here’s Why : All Tech Considered : NPR

6. Facebook sees its future built on artificial intelligence | Computerworld

7. Introducing DeepText: Facebook’s text understanding engine | Engineering Blog | Facebook Code | Facebook

8. When Will Computers Have Common Sense? Ask Facebook – Scientific American

八、其他公司

Twitter买下多家人工智能公司;IBM预测天气,举办人工智能竞赛;微软发力聊天机器人;亚马逊放弃AI推荐系统;苹果在智能助理上进行展开追赶。

1. Buying Madbits, Twitter Wants Image-Search Super Powers | WIRED

2. The Epic Fail of Hollywood’s Hottest Algorithm — Vulture

3. IBM is going to change how we forecast the weather with Watson – Quartz

4. IBM To Hold $5 Million Watson Artificial Intelligence Contest – Fortune

5. The Race Is On to Control Artificial Intelligence, and Tech’s Future – NYTimes.com

6. Clippy’s Back: The Future of Microsoft Is Chatbots

7. Microsoft’s AI CaptionBot tries to describe pictures with hilarious results | Daily Mail Online

8. Amazon’s Giving Away the AI Behind Its Product Recommendations | WIRED

9. The race to monetize artificial intelligence is on | CIO

10. Mossberg: Can Apple win the next tech war? | The Verge

11. Tech CEOs Declare This the Era of Artificial Intelligence – Fortune

12. Apple to unveil ‘SuperSiri’ to take on Amazon and Google in smart assistant wars | Daily Mail Online

13. IBM’s Plan To Fight Zika And Other Runaway Viruses With Watson’s Help – Forbes

14. Million-dollar babies | The Economist

九、 担心+警告+进展

这是国外大众媒体呈现得比较多的话题,其中包括人工智能可能会带来的在就业、安全和隐私等方面的影响,这其实是一直存在的。

1. Mark Zuckerberg says there’s nothing to fear from artificial intelligence | Project Economy – WMUR Home

2. Robots With Us, Or Against Us? Rethinking the Risks Posed by Artificial Intelligence | California Magazine

3. WATCH: 5 Top Tech Minds Reveal Hopes and Fears About AI

4. Experts reveal how AI could turn evil | Daily Mail Online

5. How to Create a Malevolent Artificial Intelligence

6. Why No Other Male-Dominated Scientific Field Is More Worrisome Than Artificial Intelligence | Alternet

7. Are We Overthinking The Dangers Of Artificial Intelligence? | Gizmodo Australia

8. What’s Next for Artificial Intelligence – WSJ

9. Everything You Know About Artificial Intelligence is Wrong

10. Artificial Intelligence For Better Or Worse?

11. Is The Singularity A Religious Doctrine? | The Meaning of Life

12. It’s Alive! The Miraculous Resurrection of Artificial Intelligence – SDJ

13. ‘Machine learning’: As important as the internet – Business Insider

14. The Promise of Artificial Intelligence Unfolds in Small Steps – NYTimes.com

15. Artificial Intelligence Is Here To Change Your Life

16. Artificial intelligence and language | TechCrunch

17. A.I. and Technology Convergence

18. Voices clash at first public hearing on self-driving cars | The Verge

19. The danger isn’t artificial intelligence – it’s us | Gadgette

20. I love you. I will kill you! I want to make love to you: The evolution of AI in pop culture • The Register

十、 未来

内容(略)

十一、 坏处

可能会带来失业,对人类生存的消极影响(略)

1. When machines can do any job, what will humans do? Human labor may be obsolete by 2045 — ScienceDaily

2. Would you bet against sex robots? AI ‘could leave half of world unemployed’ | Technology | The Guardian

3. Will Machines Eliminate Us?

4. Artificial intelligence expert: Technology could be ‘really good’ or ‘really not good’ – TODAY.com

5. Artificial intelligence will create a ‘useless class’ of humans as machines take over, historian warns | Daily Mail Online

6. AI will create ‘useless class’ of human, predicts bestselling historian | Technology | The Guardian

7. AI Open Letter – FLI – Future of Life Institute

8. [1605.02817] Unethical Research: How to Create a Malevolent Artificial Intelligence

9. Fighting malevolent AI: artificial intelligence, meet cybersecurity

10. Killer robots are ‘quickly moving toward reality’, expert warns | Daily Mail Online

11. Peek Into the Weird and Wonderful Age of AI (Yes, There’s a Chatbot) | WIRED

十二、课程

包括一些课程、演讲。

1. Machine Learning: An In-Depth, Non-Technical Guide — Part 3

2. Research Blog: Teach Yourself Deep Learning with TensorFlow and Udacity

3. Why Enrollment is Surging in Machine Learning Classes | NVDIIA

4. Singularity University: The Harvard of Silicon Valley Is Planning for a Robot Apocalypse – The Daily Beast

5. Professor Pranksman fools his students with a TA powered by IBM’s Watson | The Verge

6. Computer science class fails to notice their TA was actually an AI chatbot

7. GitHub – saiprashanths/dl-setup: Instructions for setting up the software on your deep learning machine

8. Deep Learning Isn’t a Dangerous Magic Genie. It’s Just Math | WIRED

9. Deep Learning NIPS’2015 Tutorial / Hinton, Bengio, LeCun

10. Machine Learning: An In-Depth, Non-Technical Guide — Part 5 — InnoArchiTech Innovation — Data — Technology — Leadership — Medium

11. Deep Learning Courses

12. Machine-Learning-Group/chat – Gitter

13. What I Learned Teaching a Course on Artificial Intelligence (and You Can, Too)

14. Open Access may help enlighten society on the social value of robotics and AI –Frontiers Blog

15. Gamasutra – 7 examples of game AI that every developer should study

16. Neural networks and deep learning

17. 10 Algorithm Categories for A.I., Big Data, and Data Science | BIZCATALYST 360°

18. Google launches a deep learning course on Udacity | VentureBeat | Big Data | by Jordan Novet

十三、 人物

马文·明斯基纪念专稿,对Jurgen Schmidhuber、Elon Mask、AndyRubin等人的专访。

1. RIP to the Godfather of Robots – The Daily Beast

2. Will AI Surpass Human Intelligence? Interview with Prof. Jürgen Schmidhuber on Deep Learning

3. One Genius’ Lonely Crusade to Teach a Computer Common Sense | WIRED

4. Microsoft AI boss says fears over intelligent machines are overblown | Daily Mail Online

5. Elon Musk: There’s only one AI company that worries me | The Verge

6. Nick Bostrom: ‘We are like small children playing with a bomb’ | Technology | The Guardian

7. Futurologist Dr Ian Pearson says technology is causing humans to ‘evolve’ | Daily Mail Online

8. Andy Rubin Unleashed Android on the World. Now Watch Him Do the Same With AI | WIRED

十四、 大脑

内容(略)

十五、 局限

内容(略)

十六、 比赛

内容(略)

十七、 争议——微软Tay

内容(略)

1. Microsoft deletes ‘teen girl’ AI after it became a Hitler-loving sex robot within 24 hours

2. Microsoft’s AI millennial chatbot became a racist jerk after less than a day on Twitter – Quartz

3. Microsoft deletes racist, genocidal tweets from AI chatbot Tay – Business Insider

4. Microsoft apologizes for ‘offensive and hurtful tweets’ from its AI bot | The Verge

5. It’s Your Fault Microsoft’s Teen AI Turned Into Such a Jerk | WIRED

6. 8chan and 4chan turn Microsoft chatbot Tay racist | Fusion

7. Why Microsoft just made a big bet on bots | The Verge

8. Microsoft’s wild vision for the future puts conversations at the heart of computing | The Verge

9. Tricked by a Crazy Nazi Sex Robot — Medium

十八、AlphaGo 上半年AI领域最火的关键词

内容(略)

1. Rise of the Machines: Keep an eye on AI, experts warn | Daily Mail Online

2. Google puts AI programme on the cloud to create huge AI Cloud Platform | Daily Mail Online

3. Go master: AI will one day prevail but beauty of Go remains | Daily Mail Online

4. Google AI programme wins third straight match to take Go series | Daily Mail Online

5. Google’s software beats human Go champion in first match | Daily Mail Online

6. Computer draws first blood in clash with Go grandmaster | Daily Mail Online

7. Game over! Computer wins series against Go champion | Daily Mail Online

8. AI beats human Go grandmaster… again | Daily Mail Online

9. Going places: machine beats top Go player in win for artificial intelligence | Daily Mail Online

10. Google computer wins final game against S. Korean Go master | Daily Mail Online

11. Google’s AlphaGo takes the final victory against Go champion Lee Sedol in Korea | Daily Mail Online

12. Google’s AlphaGo gets ‘divine’ Go ranking after its victory against Lee Sedol | Daily Mail Online

13. Go champ is anxious about upcoming match with Google’s AlphaGo | Daily Mail Online

14. Human Go champ says machine not superior despite 1:4 defeat | Daily Mail Online

15. Human Go champion ‘speechless’ after 2nd loss to machine | Daily Mail Online

16. Is AlphaGo Really Such a Big Deal? | Quanta Magazine

17. Google’s DeepMind Demis Hassabis Gives The Strachey Lecture

18. The Go-bot: How a machine cracked ‘the most complex game ever devised by humans’ – The Globe and Mail

19. AlphaGo’s win over Go champion Lee Se-Dol proves AI can be ‘immoral’ | Daily Mail Online

20. To Test a Powerful Computer, Play an Ancient Game – NYTimes.com

21. Behind the scenes at Google DeepMind Challenge Match: AlphaGo versus Lee Se-dol | U of T News

22. Google DeepMind’s AlphaGo: meet the U of T computer scientists who helped it win | U of T News

23. In Two Moves, AlphaGo and Lee Sedol Redefined the Future | WIRED

24. Young Chinese Player to Challenge AlphaGo within This Year

25. Sour grapes at Facebook over Google’s AI victory | Technology | The Guardian

26. Deep Learning: Sky’s the Limit?: Part 2: AlphaGo under a Magnifying Glass (The historic match of deep learning AlphaGo vs. Lee Sedol) REVISED

27. Watch Don’t Freak Out Over Google’s AI Beating a Go Grandmaster. It’s a Good Thing | WIRED Video | CNE

28. What the AI Behind AlphaGo Can Teach Us About Being Human | WIRED

29. Deep Learning: Sky’s the Limit?: Part 11: Reactions worldwide and price giving

十九、思想

内容(略)

二十、图书

内容(略)

本文由新智元编译,有删节。

原文发布于微信公众号 - 新智元(AI_era)

原文发表时间:2016-06-22

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