RMAN 备份路径困惑(使用plus archivelog时)

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-- RMAN 备份路径困惑(使用plus archivelog时)

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最近RMAN备份时,碰到一点疑惑。即使用plus archivelog 时不管是使用format参数指定备份文件的路径还是使用configure配置RMAN备份路径,都不能

将数据文件和日志文件备份到同一路径。在因为以前使用RMAN备份,都是单独备份数据文件和日志文件,所以一直没有在意这个问题。下面给出具体事例。

一、指定备份路径备份数据库及归档日志

RMAN> backup database format '/u01/bk/bk_db_%U' plus archivelog;

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

current log archived

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=146 devtype=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archive log backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=50 recid=10 stamp=750091269

input archive log thread=1 sequence=51 recid=11 stamp=750091281

input archive log thread=1 sequence=52 recid=12 stamp=750091286

input archive log thread=1 sequence=53 recid=13 stamp=750092325

input archive log thread=1 sequence=54 recid=14 stamp=750092487

input archive log thread=1 sequence=55 recid=15 stamp=750093621

input archive log thread=1 sequence=56 recid=16 stamp=750094799

input archive log thread=1 sequence=57 recid=17 stamp=750095198

input archive log thread=1 sequence=58 recid=18 stamp=750099671

input archive log thread=1 sequence=59 recid=19 stamp=750099848

input archive log thread=1 sequence=60 recid=20 stamp=750099945

input archive log thread=1 sequence=61 recid=21 stamp=750103678

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ODBP/backupset/2011_05_02/ --归档日志放在了闪回区

o1_mf_annnn_TAG20110502T180758_6vx0mzl2_.bkp tag=TAG20110502T180758 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/system01.dbf

input datafile fno=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile fno=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile fno=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1dmbbb40_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T180800 comment=NONE --数据文件存放在了指定的路径

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:45

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/system01.dbf

input datafile fno=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile fno=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile fno=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ODBP/backupset/2011_05_02/ --数据文件同时也存放在了闪回区

o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20110502T180800_6vx0og2z_.bkp tag=TAG20110502T180800 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:45

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

including current SPFILE in backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1fmbbb6r_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T180800 comment=NONE --控制文件和spfile存放到了指定路径

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

including current SPFILE in backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ODBP/backupset/2011_05_02/ --控制文件和spfile同时也保存到了闪回区

o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20110502T180800_6vx0pycl_.bkp tag=TAG20110502T180800 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

current log archived

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archive log backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=62 recid=22 stamp=750103776

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ODBP/backupset/2011_05_02/ --归档日志放在了闪回区

o1_mf_annnn_TAG20110502T180936_6vx0q1dg_.bkp tag=TAG20110502T180936 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

--查看备份的数据文件、控制文件等信息

[oracle@odbp 2011_05_02]$ ls -hltr

total 703M

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 4.5M May 2 18:08 o1_mf_annnn_TAG20110502T180758_6vx0mzl2_.bkp

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 691M May 2 18:09 o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20110502T180800_6vx0og2z_.bkp

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6.9M May 2 18:09 o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20110502T180800_6vx0pycl_.bkp

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 15K May 2 18:09 o1_mf_annnn_TAG20110502T180936_6vx0q1dg_.bkp

[oracle@odbp 2011_05_02]$ ls -hltr /u01/bk

total 698M

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 691M May 2 18:08 bk_db_1dmbbb40_1_1

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6.9M May 2 18:09 bk_db_1fmbbb6r_1_1

从上面的情况来看,

1.当指定了db_recovery_file_dest参数为 /u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area时,则归档日志被备份到此目录。

2.在参数db_recovery_file_dest参数为闪回区时,则数据文件与控制文件及spfile被使用了双重备份。

--RMAN配置信息为缺省,未做任何调整

RMAN> show all;

RMAN configuration parameters are:

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1; # default

CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default

CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK; # default

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF; # default

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '%F'; # default

CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET; # default

CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default

CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default

CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED; # default

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default

CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE; # default

CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO '/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/snapcf_odbp.f'; # default

--将db_recovery_file_dest参数置空

SQL> alter system set db_recovery_file_dest='';

System altered.

二、再次使用RMAN进行备份

RMAN> backup database format '/u01/bk/bk_db_%U' plus archivelog;

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

current log archived

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=138 devtype=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archive log backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=50 recid=10 stamp=750091269

input archive log thread=1 sequence=51 recid=11 stamp=750091281

input archive log thread=1 sequence=52 recid=12 stamp=750091286

input archive log thread=1 sequence=53 recid=13 stamp=750092325

input archive log thread=1 sequence=54 recid=14 stamp=750092487

input archive log thread=1 sequence=55 recid=15 stamp=750093621

input archive log thread=1 sequence=56 recid=16 stamp=750094799

input archive log thread=1 sequence=57 recid=17 stamp=750095198

input archive log thread=1 sequence=58 recid=18 stamp=750099671

input archive log thread=1 sequence=59 recid=19 stamp=750099848

input archive log thread=1 sequence=60 recid=20 stamp=750099945

input archive log thread=1 sequence=61 recid=21 stamp=750103678

input archive log thread=1 sequence=62 recid=22 stamp=750103776

input archive log thread=1 sequence=63 recid=23 stamp=750104981

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/1imbbccm_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T182942 comment=NONE --归档日志备份位于$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/system01.dbf

input datafile fno=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile fno=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile fno=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1jmbbcco_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T182944 comment=NONE --数据文件存放在了指定的路径

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:55

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/system01.dbf

input datafile fno=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile fno=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile fno=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/1kmbbceg_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T182944 comment=NONE--数据文件同时也存放在$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:55

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

including current SPFILE in backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1lmbbcg7_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T182944 comment=NONE --控制文件及spfile备份位于指定路径下

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:05

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

including current SPFILE in backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/1mmbbcgc_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T182944 comment=NONE--归档日志文件备份位于$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:01

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

current log archived

using channel ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting archive log backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=64 recid=24 stamp=750105102

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11 --控制文件及spfile备同时也存放在$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/1nmbbcge_1_1 tag=TAG20110502T183142 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

从上面的情况来看,

1.当db_recovery_file_dest参数为空值时,则归档日志,控制文件及spfile被备份到$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下

2.数据文件及控制文件同样实现了双重备份,一份位于$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下,一份位于用户指定路径下

三、如何将归档日志文件,控制文件,spfile文件以及数据文件备份到同一路径下,

RMAN> run{

2> allocate channel ch1 device type disk;

3> allocate channel ch2 device type disk;

4> backup database format '/u01/bk/bk_db_%U'

5> plus archivelog format '/u01/bk/bk_lg_%U';

6> release channel ch1;

7> release channel ch2;}

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ch1

channel ch1: sid=141 devtype=DISK

allocated channel: ch2

channel ch2: sid=148 devtype=DISK

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

current log archived

channel ch1: starting archive log backupset

channel ch1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=59 recid=19 stamp=750099848

input archive log thread=1 sequence=60 recid=20 stamp=750099945

input archive log thread=1 sequence=61 recid=21 stamp=750103678

input archive log thread=1 sequence=62 recid=22 stamp=750103776

input archive log thread=1 sequence=63 recid=23 stamp=750104981

input archive log thread=1 sequence=64 recid=24 stamp=750105102

input archive log thread=1 sequence=65 recid=25 stamp=750767326

input archive log thread=1 sequence=66 recid=26 stamp=750769794

channel ch1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch2: starting archive log backupset

channel ch2: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=50 recid=10 stamp=750091269

input archive log thread=1 sequence=51 recid=11 stamp=750091281

input archive log thread=1 sequence=52 recid=12 stamp=750091286

input archive log thread=1 sequence=53 recid=13 stamp=750092325

input archive log thread=1 sequence=54 recid=14 stamp=750092487

input archive log thread=1 sequence=55 recid=15 stamp=750093621

input archive log thread=1 sequence=56 recid=16 stamp=750094799

input archive log thread=1 sequence=57 recid=17 stamp=750095198

input archive log thread=1 sequence=58 recid=18 stamp=750099671

channel ch2: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_lg_1ombvlk3_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T110954 comment=NONE --归档日志存放到指定路径

channel ch1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03

channel ch2: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_lg_1pmbvlk3_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T110954 comment=NONE --归档日志存放到指定路径

channel ch2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:03

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

channel ch1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ch1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/system01.dbf

input datafile fno=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/sysaux01.dbf

channel ch1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch2: starting full datafile backupset

channel ch2: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile fno=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/odbp/users01.dbf

channel ch2: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch2: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1rmbvlk7_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T110958 comment=NONE --数据文件存放到指定路径

channel ch2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:09

channel ch2: starting full datafile backupset

channel ch2: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

channel ch2: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch2: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1smbvlmd_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T110958 comment=NONE --数据文件存放到指定路径

channel ch2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:07

channel ch2: starting full datafile backupset

channel ch2: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current SPFILE in backupset

channel ch2: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch2: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1tmbvlml_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T110958 comment=NONE --控制文件,spfile文件存放到指定路径

channel ch2: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:08

channel ch1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_db_1qmbvlk7_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T110958 comment=NONE

channel ch1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:01:31

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

Starting backup at 02-MAY-11

current log archived

channel ch1: starting archive log backupset

channel ch1: specifying archive log(s) in backup set

input archive log thread=1 sequence=67 recid=27 stamp=750769890

channel ch1: starting piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

channel ch1: finished piece 1 at 02-MAY-11

piece handle=/u01/bk/bk_lg_1umbvln2_1_1 tag=TAG20110510T111130 comment=NONE

channel ch1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:02

Finished backup at 02-MAY-11

released channel: ch1

released channel: ch2

四、总结(RMAN备份路径)

1.在未通过configure命令设定RMAN备份文件路径以及未修改db_recovery_file_dest,且指定了format参数,则备份的数据文件,参数文件,

控制文件,采用了双重保护方式,一份位于指定路径,一份位于缺省的闪回区。同时归档日志保存在闪回区。

2.一旦修改了db_recovery_file_dest至特定路径,则同上述功能一样,所不同的是存放到非缺省的闪回区。

3.当db_recovery_file_dest为空值时,同样使用双重保护,但这些文件被放置到了$ORACLE_HOME/dbs路径下。

4.当使用了configure channel device type disk format = '/u01/bk/db_%U'配置RMAN,则对于badkup database plus archivelog同样会出现上

述的情况。

5.如果指定了configure channel device type disk format = '/u01/bk/db_%U',则单独备份数据文件和日志文件不存在问题,都会存放在指定路径。

6.在同一条命令来完成(badkup database plus archivelog)则需要单独指定数据文件和日志文件的位置,如下方式:

backup database format '/u01/bk/bk_db_%U'

plus archivelog format '/u01/bk/bk_lg_%U'

五、更多参考

有关性能优化请参考

Oracle 硬解析与软解析

共享池的调整与优化(Shared pool Tuning)

Buffer cache 的调整与优化(一)

Oracle 表缓存(caching table)的使用

有关闪回特性请参考

Oracle 闪回特性(FLASHBACK DATABASE)

Oracle 闪回特性(FLASHBACK DROP & RECYCLEBIN)

Oracle 闪回特性(Flashback Query、Flashback Table)

Oracle 闪回特性(Flashback Version、Flashback Transaction)

有关基于用户管理的备份和备份恢复的概念请参考

Oracle 冷备份

Oracle 热备份

Oracle 备份恢复概念

Oracle 实例恢复

Oracle 基于用户管理恢复的处理(详细描述了介质恢复及其处理)

有关RMAN的恢复与管理请参考

RMAN 概述及其体系结构

RMAN 配置、监控与管理

RMAN 备份详解

RMAN 还原与恢复

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Oracle数据恢复顾问用于当数据发生错误或故障时,进行自动收集数据故障信息,并生成恢复脚本,用于完成数据恢复。数据恢复顾问也可以主动检查故障。 在这种模式下,...

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来自专栏乐沙弥的世界

Linux/Unix shell 自动 FTP 备份档案

       使用shell脚本实现对Oracle数据库的监控与管理将大大简化DBA的工作负担,如常见的对实例的监控,监听的监控,告警日志的监控,以及数据库的备...

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