2017/2018世界媒体趋势报告发布

2017/2018 World Media Trends Report now available

2017/2018世界媒体趋势报告发布

© Tobin Jones

The latest edition of UNESCO’s World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Developmenthas been published and is now available online:

http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002610/261065e.pdf

最新版联合国教科文组织《世界趋势:表达自由和媒介发展》报告已发布,全文可在网上查询。

Current developments paint a picture of both vast opportunity and steep challenge. Among the major trends over the past five years identified by the report are:

目前的发展状况既带来了巨大的机遇,也呈现出严峻的挑战。报告将过去5年的主要趋势概括为:

A stronger right to seek and receive information, but more restrictions on the right to impart (https://en.unesco.org/node/279170). Freedom of information and open data activities have expanded, but conditions for journalists, including protection of sources and protection against various forms of harassment, intimidation and exclusion have declined.

搜索和获取信息的能力更强,但对信息传播的限制增多。信息自由和开放数据活动更加活跃,但记者的工作环境却在恶化,包括对信息源的保护和防止各种形式的骚扰、恐吓和排斥。

More plurality of information, but no change in gender inequality in and through the media(https://en.unesco.org/node/279172). The trends indicate that while access is increasing and content is abundant, media pluralism remains inhibited in important ways. The dominance of large players is affecting traditional media.

信息量更大,但在性别平等方面,媒体呈现的内容和通过媒体产生的改变并没有变化。趋势表明,虽然访问量增加且内容更为丰富,但媒体多元化仍然在重要方面受到抑制,大型信息提供者的主导地位正在影响传统媒体。

Among the significant aspects of press freedom that are at stake, media independence is among the most vulnerable(https://en.unesco.org/node/279176). Disruptions in business models and declining autonomy of independent regulators was contributing to increasing dependence on government and corporations.

在新闻自由受到的多种威胁中,媒体独立性最为脆弱。商业模式中断和独立监管机构自主权下降导致对政府和企业的日益依赖。

According to UNESCO figures, the number of journalists killed in a five-year period increased substantially. Growing attacks on journalists – a trend that may have been even worse if it were not for the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity (https://en.unesco.org/node/278777).

根据教科文组织的数字,在过去5年内遇难的记者人数大幅增加。如果没有《联合国关于记者安全和有罪不罚问题的行动计划》,情况或许会更糟糕。

The World Media Trends Report analyzes developments across the four key focus areas of media freedom, pluralism, independence and the safety of journalists.

《世界媒体趋势报告》分析了4个关键领域的发展情况,即媒体自由、多元化、独立和记者安全。

Under the period of analysis, continued legal restrictions including criminal laws against defamation, national security concerns such as anti-terrorism laws and large-scale shutdowns of internet access have been seen on the rise. Such trends have seriously affected media freedom, while posing a serious threat to freedom of expression.

在这5年间,法律限制持续增多,包括反诽谤法、反恐等国家安全法。此外,大范围切断互联网接入的情况正在上升。这种趋势严重影响了媒体自由,同时对言论自由构成威胁。

Wholesale disruptions (like internet shutdowns) have become much more common. ‘Fake news’ has emerged as a phenomenon in some regions undermining media legitimacy with a consequent challenge for appropriate and proportionate government responses that do not weaken media freedom. Gender gaps in journalism and law continue to affect the implementation of full media freedom.

整体关断(如关闭互联网)变得更加普遍。在一些地区,“假新闻”已经成为一种破坏媒体合法性的现象,政府需要采取适当和适度的措施,以免削弱媒体自由。新闻和法律方面的性别差距将继续影响全面媒体自由的实现。

The Report also notes that the availability of media content has dramatically increased, largely through user-generated content on social media, while large internet companies have emerged as key platforms for individuals to access news and information. Yet, these transformations have been marked by the proliferation of unverified news across internet companies’ networks and the raise of ‘echo chambers’ and ‘filter bubbles’ due to algorithm-ranked search results.

报告还指出,缘于社交媒体生成的大量用户内容,媒体内容的可用性大幅提升。大型互联网公司已成为个人访问新闻和信息的关键平台。然而,这些转变意味着在由公司运营的网络平台,未经证实的新闻数量激增;同时,算法排名搜索结果引起的“回声室”和“过滤泡沫”亦在增加。

Additionally, the Report recognizes the worsening problem of news media losing money and becoming less sustainable. Disruptions in business models have been seen as contributing to increasing dependence on government and corporate subsidies in some circumstances, and thereby raising concerns about potential impacts on editorial independence.

此外,报告还认识到新闻媒体资金流失问题比以往更为严重,其可持续性堪忧。在某些情况下,商业模式的混乱导致新闻媒体依赖于政府和企业补贴,从而引起对编辑自主性的潜在影响的担忧。

Disempowered and marginalized peoples continue to have great difficulty reporting their stories or having their stories fairly reported on, large numbers of people remain digitally unconnected and women remain unequal in the media. Furthermore, a limited number of large players, particularly algorithm-driven internet companies and the rise of mobile apps, are increasingly structuring how users may or may not be able to reach specific information.

弱势和边缘化的人群仍然很难在媒体上见到自己的声音,或得到公平报道;大量人报道他们的故事或报道他们的故事,大量的人仍然处于与数字世界不相干的状态,而且媒体中的性别不平等仍未改观。此外,为数不多的大型企业垄断地位,特别是算法驱动的互联网公司和移动应用程序的兴起,正在越来越多地固化用户获取信息的渠道和方式,导致他们获得的信息日趋单一。

Declining autonomy of independent regulators, disruptions in business models have been seen as contributing to increasing dependence on government and corporate subsidies in some circumstances, and thereby raising concerns about potential impacts on editorial independence. In some cases, there has been an increase in highly antagonistic criticism, including from leaders, about media and the practice of journalism.

独立监管机构自主权的下降,商业模式的混乱推动了媒体对政府和企业补贴的日益依赖,这对编辑自主性的潜在影响引起了人们的担忧。对媒体和新闻业的高度对立性批评有所增加,有些还是来自相关领导人。

In regards to the trends in safety of journalists, according to UNESCO report, the number of journalists killed in a five-year period increased substantially (216 journalists were killed in 2007-2011 in comparison to 530 journalists in 2012-2016). From the other hand, 2017 was the first year of decline of killings of journalists. At the same time, trends in arbitrary detention, abduction and torture are reportedly growing in some regions.

关于记者安全趋势,根据教科文组织的报告,5年内遇难的记者人数大幅增加(2007-2011年有216名记者遇难,2012-2016年增至530名)。另一方面,2017年是记者遇害率下降的第一年。与此同时,据报道在一些地区对记者的任意拘留、绑架和酷刑的趋势正在增加。

With a special focus on gender equality in the media, the World Media Trends Report highlights that only one in three reporters and only one in four media decision-makers are women. Moreover, the ongoing issue of online harassment of women journalists can have a chilling effect on women working in the media, further detracting from media pluralism.

《世界媒体趋势报告》对媒体中性别平等给予特别关注。报告强调,只有1/3的记者和1/4的媒体决策者是女性。此外,目前对女性记者进行在线骚扰的问题可能会对在媒体工作的女性产生寒蝉效应,进一步破坏媒体多元化。

The 2017/2018 edition was co-produced with the University of Oxford, in close co-ordination with lead researchers at the University of Witwatersrand and the University of Pennsylvania. A global network of regional researchers, graduate research assistants and an expert Advisory Group also contributed to the Report.

2017/2018版年度报告系与牛津大学合作完成,南非金山大学和美国宾夕法尼亚大学在这一领域的重要研究人员密切参与。一个由地区研究人员、研究生研究助理和专家咨询小组组成的全球网络也为本报告做出了贡献。

Specific overviews analyzing the media trends in six regions will also be published by the end of May.

对6个地区媒体趋势概况的分析的具体报告将于5月底发布。

The Report’s Executive Summary is also available in six languages (https://en.unesco.org/world-media-trends-2017).

报告的执行摘要以6种语言发布(https://zh.unesco.org/world-media-trends-2017)。

Since its first publication in 2014 thanks to the support of Sweden, the World Trends Report has become a key reference for Member States, international and civil society organizations and academics seeking to understand the opportunities and challenges facing press freedom at the global and regional level.

得益于瑞典的支持,《世界趋势报告》自2014年首次发布以来已成为会员国、国际和民间社会组织,以及寻求了解全球和地区层面新闻自由面临的机遇和挑战的学者的重要参考。

For more information,visit:

https://en.unesco.org/world-media-trends-2017

有关更多信息,请访问:

https://zh.unesco.org/world-media-trends-2017

To download the infographics,share the videos and access more media resources:

信息图表下载,视频分享及访问更多媒体资源:

https://en.unesco.org/world-media-trends-2017/media-resources

Sign up for News and receive the latest updates about the report and national launches:

注册以接收新闻及关于该报告和国家发布的最新信息:

https://en.unesco.org/feedback/sign-news

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